Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility
Sura Facility
HAARP Like Facility
Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia
+56° 7' 9.70", +46° 2' 3.66"
Image courtesy of Yuri Tokarev

Antennas at Sura facility, Russia.

The Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, located near the small town of Vasilsursk about 100 km eastward from Nizhniy Novgorod in Russia, is a laboratory for ionosphere research. Sura is capable of radiating about 190 MW, effective radiated power (ERP) on short waves. This facility is operated by the radiophysical research institute NIRFI in Nizhny Novgorod. The Sura facility was commissioned in 1981. Using this facility, Russian researchers achieved extremely interesting results regarding the ionosphere behavior and discovered the effect of generation of low-frequency emission at the modulation of ionosphere current[1]. At the beginning, Soviet Defense Department mostly footed the bill. The American HAARP ionospheric heater is similar to the Sura facility. The HAARP project began in 1993.

Technical information

The frequency range of the heating facility is from 4.5 to 9.3 MHz. The facility consists of three 250 kW broadcasting transmitters and a 144 crossed dipole antenna-array with dimensions of 300 m x 300 m. At the middle of the operating frequency range (4.5 � 9.3 MHz) a maximum zenith gain of about 260 (~24 dB) is reached, the ERP of the facility is 190 MW (~83 dbW).

Image courtesy of Yuri Tokarev
Image courtesy
Image courtesy

SOURCE: Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility

+56° 7' 9.70", +46° 2' 3.66"
SURA: Russian Site


+56° 7' 9.70", +46° 2' 3.66"
+56° 7' 9.70", +46° 2' 3.66"
Вид Васильсурска с высоты птичьего полёта
Vasilsursk, aerial view. Credit: Андрей Рубцов
AboveTopSecret Discussion Thread
Sura - A glance at the Russian HAARP Facility
Title: Artificial Ionospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation (Sura ? HAARP)
Project Director: Vladimir Leont�evich Frolov
Institute: Radiophysical Research Institute (NIRFI), 603950 Russia, Nizhny Novgorod,
B.Pecherskaya St. 25.
CRDF project number: RPO-1334-N0-02.
Reporting period: August 2003 � November 2006.

Accession Number : ADA471091
Title :   Artificial Ionospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation (Sura - HAARP)
Descriptive Note : Final rept. 1 Apr 2003-3 Apr 2007
Personal Author(s) : Frolov, Vladimir L.
Handle / proxy Url : SOURCE: DTIC.MIL  PDF ADA471091
Report Date : 01 NOV 2006

Summary Page

The main objectives of the project are: (1) integrated experimental, theoretical and computer simulation studies of non-linear plasma phenomena, produced in the upper ionosphere by powerful HF radiation and giving rise to plasma density irregularities with a wide range of crossfield (relatively to geomagnetic field lines) scales from centimeters to tens of kilometers, (2) investigation of an influence of these irregularities on characteristics of HF and VHF radio waves passed through the ionosphere disturbed volume (IDV), and (3) control for long distance propagation of HF radio waves through an ionosphere wave-guide channel by means of radio wave scattering from small-scale field-aligned irregularities (the SURA�HAARP experiment). In the framework of the project 8 heating campaign at the Sura facility have been carried out in all. Obtained in this campaign experimental data as well as data obtained in earlier performed measurements allowed to study in detail the following points: 

  • (i) space distribution of small-, middle-, and large-scale irregularities in the IDV; 
  • (ii) peculiarities of both artificial ionosphere turbulence (AIT) evolution and transport processes in the upper (F-region) ionosphere when short pulse pumping is used for ionosphere modification; 
  • (iii) influence of small-scale fieldaligned irregularities (striations) on generation of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE);
  • (iv) some features of the magnetic zenith effect; 
  • (v) ionospheric effects of geomagnetic disturbances; 
  • (vi) peculiarities of HF radio wave long distance propagation. 
Using the software elaborated for modeling of radio paths for the SURA�HAARP experiment, necessary calculations and estimations for this experiment have been done. In March and May 2006 two sessions of measurements in the framework of the SURA�HAARP experiment were carried out. Besides, it was performed experiments aimed at the study of features of artificial ionosphere disturbances, which are generated by nonlinear mixing of two HF waves at frequencies higher than F2-region critical frequency (f0F2) but when difference between them is below of f0F2 (ionosphere heating at the local plasma frequency by beating two high-power electromagnetic waves). In these experiments the bispectral method was used for the spectral analysis of received signals. New experiments aimed at the study of AIT features when additional X-mode pumping is used were also performed. Experimental results, obtained in the framework of the project, give new knowledge about AIT features and allow elaborating in more details its empirical models, as well as to study peculiarities of HF radio wave long distance propagation under different ionospheric conditions.
FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Pegasus Research Consortium distributes this material without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. We believe this constitutes a fair use of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 U.S.C § 107. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
~ MENU ~


Webpages  © 2001-2016
Blue Knight Productions