Author Topic: B L O O D  (Read 10642 times)

space otter

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« on: June 13, 2015, 07:47:35 PM »
hey Z I think we need some kind of helath thing cause this stuff gets lost in general

but blood is an interesting topic.. for any number of reasons so I thought I would just start with this
all of the stories and findings of what each type means is vastly interesting
and the implications like this where the different types are hostile to each..brings about tons of questions

one of these dazes I may go find out what type I am..but I'm not in any hurry  ::)

ok here's article one

One Man's Donated Blood Has Saved More Than Two Million Lives
Hannah Keyser   6 hrs ago

Even though 78-year-old James Harrison hates the sight of blood and has a self-professed low pain tolerance, he has been donating blood nearly every week since he was legally old enough. He was inspired to do so after someone else's donated blood saved his life during a chest operation when he was 14.

While all blood donors have the potential to make a difference in someone's life, Harrison is special. The plasma from his blood has the ability to cure a deadly disease.

In Australia, where Harrison lives, rhesus disease - a condition in which a pregnant woman's blood begins attacking her unborn baby's blood cells - was claiming the lives of thousands of babies a year before 1967. If a pregnant woman has rhesus-negative blood and the baby in her womb has rhesus-positive blood, inherited from its father, the mother's body may react by producing antibodies that actively seek out and destroy the baby's "foreign" blood cells, resulting in brain damage or death.

Shortly after his first donation when he was 18, doctors called Harrison with a big announcement: He might be the solution to this mysterious disease, as his plasma contained a rare rhesus antibody. Over the course of the 1960s, Harrison worked with doctors to develop an injection called Anti-D, which prevents expectant mothers from developing the harmful antibodies. Ever since then, Anti-D has been used to successfully ward off rhesus disease throughout Australia.

"Every bag of blood is precious, but James' blood is particularly extraordinary," says Jemma Falkenmire, of the Australian Red Cross Blood Service. "His blood is actually used to make a life-saving medication, given to moms whose blood is at risk of attacking their unborn babies. Every batch of Anti-D that has ever been made in Australia has come from James' blood. And more than 17% of women in Australia are at risk, so James has helped save a lot of lives."

Over 2,000,000, according to estimates by the Australian Red Cross blood service.

Since the discovery, Harrison has donated plasma more than 1,000 times. But his opportunities are dwindling. In Australia, people must retire from plasma donation at the age of 81, which is just three years away for Harrison.

"I guess for us the hope is there will be people who will donate, who will also ... have this antibody and become life savers in the same way he has, and all we can do is hope there will be people out there generous enough to do it, and selflessly in the way he's done," says Falkenmire.


general info

Human blood is grouped into four types: A, B, AB, and O. Each letter refers to a kind of antigen, or protein, on the surface of red blood cells. For example, the surface of red blood cells in Type A blood has antigens known as A-antigens.

Specific ABO blood types are thought to be linked with increased or decreased susceptibility to particular diseases.

Explore: ABO blood group system

Blood type tests are done before a person gets a blood transfusion and to check a pregnant woman's blood type.

Explore: Blood transfusion

. . . the O? blood type is called the ``universal donor'' . . .; since its red blood cells have no A or B antigens and are Rh-negative, no other blood type will reject it. Wikipedia

Explore: Red blood cell, Antigen
« Last Edit: June 13, 2015, 07:52:57 PM by space otter »

space otter

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #1 on: June 13, 2015, 08:02:19 PM »

Genes and Blood Type

Blood is a complex, living tissue that contains many cell types and proteins. A transporter, regulator, and defender, blood courses through the body carrying out many important functions.

Blood Types

Type A blood cells are covered with A agglutinogens, type B have B agglutinogens, type AB have both A and B, and type O blood have none.

Distinct molecules called agglutinogens (a type of antigen) are attached to the surface of red blood cells. There are two different types of agglutinogens, type "A" and type "B". Each type has different properties. The ABO blood type classification system uses the presence or absence of these molecules to categorize blood into four types.

Another level of specificity is added to blood type by examining the presence or absence of the Rh protein. Each blood type is either positive "+" (has the Rh protein) or negative "-" (no Rh protein). For example, a person whose blood type is "A positive" (A +), has both type A and Rh proteins on the surface of their red blood cells.

Blood Type Is Determined Genetically

The table on the left shows all of the possible combinations of blood type alleles. The blood type for each allele combination is shown on the right. For example, if you inherit a B allele from your father and an A allele from your mother, your blood type will be AB.
The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are made by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene.

The A allele codes for an enzyme that makes the A antigen, and the B allele codes for an enzyme that makes the B antigen. A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional; it makes no surface molecules at all.

Everyone inherits two alleles of the gene, one from each parent. The combination of your two alleles determines your blood type.

When Blood Types Mix

Blood plasma is packed with proteins called antibodies. The body produces a wide variety of antibodies that will recognize and attack foreign molecules that may enter from the outside world. A person's plasma does not contain any antibodies that will bind to molecules that are part of his or her own body.

When conducting a blood transfusion, it is important to carefully match the donor and recipient blood types. If the donor blood cells have surface molecules that are different from those of the recipient, antibodies in the recipient's blood recognize the donor blood as foreign. This triggers an immune response resulting in blood clotting. If the donor blood cells have surface molecules that are the same as those of the recipient, the recipient's body will not see them as foreign and will not mount an immune response.

There are two special blood types when it comes to blood transfusions. People with type O blood are universal donors because there are no molecules on the surface of the red blood cells that can trigger an immune response. People with type AB blood are universal recipients because they do not have any antibodies that will recognize type A or B surface molecules.

Note: Blood cells are covered with a variety of surface molecules. For simplicity, only type A and B surface molecules are shown here.

Funding provided by grant 51006109 from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Precollege Science Education Initiative for Biomedical Research.

space otter

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #2 on: June 13, 2015, 08:39:30 PM »
How to Determine Positive and Negative Blood Types
Two Parts:Finding Out Your Blood TypeTesting Your Blood Type at Home

Knowing your blood type is important, especially if you are pregnant or have frequent blood transfusions. There are two major ways of distinguishing between blood types. The first is the ABO blood system, where the blood type is defined as either A, B, AB or O. The second is the Rhesus (Rh) blood group system, which determines whether a blood type is negative or positive. Figuring out whether your blood type is positive or negative is fairly simple and can be accomplished in one of three ways - by finding out your parents' blood type, by getting a doctor to perform a blood typing test or by using an at-home test kit.

Understand what makes your blood "positive" or "negative". Your blood is made up of many different components, but the most important component when it comes to determining whether your blood type is positive or negative is the Rhesus antigen.

The Rhesus antigen is a particular protein only found in the red blood cells of people with positive blood types.
In other words, if the Rhesus antigen is present in your red blood cells, you're Rh positive (which means you have a positive blood type).
But if the Rh antigen is absent from your red blood cells, you're Rh negative (which means you have a negative blood type).[1]
Find out your parents' blood type. Sometimes it's possible to determine whether you have a positive or negative blood type simply by finding out your parents blood type. However, this only works if both of your biological parents have the same Rhesus factor.
If your parents are both negative, then you are Rh (-)

If your parents are both positive or if one of your parents is positive and the other is negative, you can get a blood test and look for the Rhesus factor to know if your blood type is (+) or (-)
Ask your doctor for a blood typing test. If your parents have different blood types, or their blood type is unknown, you can ask your doctor to perform a simple blood typing test to find out whether your blood is positive or negative. This test is quick, easy and relatively painless. The standard procedure for a blood typing test is as follows:

Blood is usually drawn from the vein inside your elbow, so this area will first be cleaned with some disinfectant. Then an elastic band will be tied around the arm, a couple of centimeters above the elbow - this causes the vein to swell, making it easier to extract blood.

Then, a needle is inserted into the vein and blood is collected in the attached tube. As the blood is collected, the elastic band is removed from the arm in order to restore circulation. When enough blood has been drawn, the needle is removed and a band-aid is applied to the puncture site. The blood sample is then labeled and sent to the lab for testing.

The lab test for determining positive and negative blood types is actually fairly simple. Two drops of blood are placed on a glass slide and are mixed with an anti-Rh serum. If the blood is Rh (+) the blood cells will stick together, but if the blood is Rh (-) the cells will fail to clot. [2]

Once the lab has determined whether your blood is positive or negative (in addition to which blood group you belong to: A, B, AB or O), the results will be sent back to your doctor who will contact you and pass on the information. Remember to make a note of the results for future reference.

Understand the importance of knowing your blood type. Knowing your blood group (A, B, AB or O) and your Rhesus factor (positive or negative) is important if you are receiving a blood transfusion or an organ transplant, as not all blood types are compatible with one another. However, knowing whether your blood type is positive or negative becomes most important if you are pregnant.

Sometimes during pregnancy a condition known as "Rh incompatibility" will occur. This is when an Rh negative mother is carrying an Rh positive baby and the mother's Rh antibodies begin attacking the developing baby's red blood cells. This can cause severe anemia in the child and possible death.
Therefore during her pregnancy, an Rh negative mother (carrying a baby whose father is Rh positive) will undergo blood tests to screen for antibodies to Rh positive blood. If no antibodies have started developing, the mother will receive a shot of RH immune globulin, which prevents her body from producing antibodies harmful to the child.

However, if the antibodies are already present in the mother's system, it is too late to administer the shot. In this situation, the developing baby will be closely monitored and may be given a blood transfusion through the umbilical chord, if necessary.

In most cases the baby's Rh factor (positive or negative) will not be known til birth. If the baby is Rh negative (like its mother) no further action needs to be taken. But if the baby is Rh positive, the mother will need another shot of Rh immune globulin after the delivery and a shot during and after each subsequent pregnancy. [3]


Distribution of Blood Types

Blood provides an ideal opportunity for the study of human variation without cultural prejudice.  It can be easily classified for many different genetically inherited blood typing systems.  Also significant is the fact that we rarely take blood types into consideration in selecting mates.  In addition, few people know their own type today and no one did prior to 1900.  As a result, differences in blood type frequencies around the world are most likely due to other factors than social discrimination.  Contemporary Japan is somewhat of an exception since there are popular Japanese stereotypes about people with different blood types.  This could affect choice in marriage partners for some Japanese.

All human populations share the same 29 known blood systems, although they differ in the frequencies of specific types.  Given the evolutionary closeness of apes and monkeys to our species, it is not surprising that some of them share a number of blood typing systems with us as well.

When we donate blood or have surgery, a small sample is usually taken in advance for at least ABO click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced and Rh click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced systems typing.  If you are O+, the O is your ABO type and the + is your Rh type.  It is possible to be A, B, AB, or O as well as Rh+ click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced or Rh- click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced.  You inherited your blood types from your parents and the environment in which you live cannot change them.

ABO Blood Type System

We have learned a good deal about how common each of the ABO blood types is around the world.  It is quite clear that the distribution patterns are complex.  Both clinal and discontinuous distributions exist, suggesting a complicated evolutionary history for humanity.  This can be seen with the global frequency patterns of the type B blood allele (shown in the map below).  Note that it is highest in Central Asia and lowest among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australia.  However, there are relatively high frequency pockets in Africa as well.  Overall in the world, B is the rarest ABO blood allele.  Only 16% of humanity have it.

Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world

The A blood allele is somewhat more common around the world than B.  About 21% of all people share the A allele. The highest frequencies of A are found in small, unrelated populations, especially the Blackfoot Indians of Montana (30-35%), the Australian Aborigines (many groups are 40-53%), and the Lapps, or Saami people, of Northern Scandinavia (50-90%).  The A allele apparently was absent among Central and South American Indians.

Distribution of the A type blood allele in native populations of the world

The O blood type (usually resulting from the absence of both A and B alleles) is very common around the world.  About 63% of humans share it.  Type O is particularly high in frequency among the indigenous populations of Central and South America, where it approaches 100%.  It also is relatively high among Australian Aborigines and in Western Europe (especially in populations with Celtic ancestors).  The lowest frequency of O is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where B is common.

Distribution of the O type blood in native populations of the world

Other Blood Type Systems

The majority of the people in the world have the Rh+ blood type.  However, it is more common in some regions.  Native Americans and Australian Aborigines were very likely 99-100% Rh+ before they began interbreeding with people from other parts of the world.  This does not imply that Native Americans and Australian Aborigines are historically closely related to each other.  Most Subsaharan African populations are around 97-99% Rh+.  East Asians are 93-99+% Rh+.  Europeans have the lowest frequency of this blood type for any continent.  They are 83-85% Rh+.  The lowest known frequency is found among the Basques of the Pyrenees Mountains between France and Spain.  They are only 65% Rh+.

The distribution patterns for the Diego click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced blood system are even more striking.  Evidently, all Africans, Europeans, East Indians, Australian Aborigines, and Polynesians are Diego negative.  The only populations with Diego positive people may be Native Americans (2-46%) and East Asians (3-12%).  This nonrandom distribution pattern fits well with the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for Native Americans.


These patterns of ABO, Rh, and Diego blood type distributions are not similar to those for skin color or other so-called "racial" traits.  The implication is that the specific causes responsible for the distribution of human blood types have been different than those for other traits that have been commonly employed to categorize people into "races."  Since it would be possible to divide up humanity into radically different groupings using blood typing instead of other genetically inherited traits such as skin color, we have more conclusive evidence that the commonly used typological model for understanding human variation is scientifically unsound.

The more we study the precise details of human variation, the more we understand how complex are the patterns.  They cannot be easily summarized or understood.  Yet, this hard-earned scientific knowledge is generally ignored in most countries because of more demanding social and political concerns.  As a result, discrimination based on presumed "racial" groups still continues.  It is important to keep in mind that this "racial" classification often has more to do with cultural and historical distinctions than it does with biology.  In a very real sense, "race" is a distinction that is created by culture not biology.


There Are Way More Blood Types Than You Think

 By Dan Nosowitz  Posted February 24, 2012

Researchers at the University of Vermont have discovered two new proteins? on red blood cells that confirm the testable existence of two new blood types. It's an important discovery, one that'll greatly reduce the risk of incompatible blood transfusions among tens of thousands of people. But what we were more struck by in this press release was the fact that these two new blood types--named Junior and Langereis--bring the total number of recognized blood types up to 32. 32!

Turns out there's much more than just A, B, AB, and O: there are now 28 other, rarer types, often named after the person in whom they were discovered. These rarer types are identified by the presence of a particular group of antigens (substances that tell your immune system to send out antibodies), and many, like the Kell and MNS blood types, can actually be concurrent with more common blood types like A or O.

But the discovery of new blood types is pretty rare; the last new one was discovered more than a decade ago. So it's big news that two were discovered at the same time. The Junior and Langereis groups are particularly prevalent in East Asia, especially Japan. Says University of Vermont biologist Bryan Ballif: "More than 50,000 Japanese are thought to be Junior negative and may encounter blood transfusion problems or mother-fetus incompatibility."

The study? appears in the February issue of Nature Genetics.


you'll have to go read  this at the links because they don't copy


and soon all the occult theories and aliens connections...... ;)

feel free to jump in at any time.. pleaseeeeeeeeeeeeeeee  ;D

« Last Edit: June 13, 2015, 08:48:35 PM by space otter »

Offline Shasta56

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #3 on: June 13, 2015, 08:49:09 PM »
My husband is AB-. I told him he's not allowed to ever need a transfusion.  That's the rarest type.  O- is considered a universal donor, as it normally won't react badly with the other types.  Transfusion reactions are not common, but can be fatal.

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Offline zorgon

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #4 on: June 13, 2015, 11:30:06 PM »
and soon all the occult theories and aliens connections...... ;)
feel free to jump in at any time.. pleaseeeeeeeeeeeeeeee  ;D

Well  it seems all the cattle mutlations by aliens :P has paid off :D

Cow's blood saves life of crash victim in world first procedure




Offline ArMaP

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #5 on: June 14, 2015, 04:25:51 AM »
Well  it seems all the cattle mutlations by aliens :P has paid off :D
I suppose you noticed this: :)
Mrs Coakley’s religion permits the use of blood substitutes and doctors in Melbourne, Australia, flew in ten unites of the haemoglobin- based experimental plasma – called HBOC-2-1 – from the United States where it is being developed by the military.

PS: I don't know what's my blood type. :(

Online Sgt.Rocknroll

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #6 on: June 14, 2015, 06:47:51 AM »
Mine is A+, i didn't find that out until I looked at my dog tags... ::)
Non nobis, Domine, non nobis, sed nomini Tuo da gloriam

space otter

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #7 on: June 14, 2015, 09:32:11 AM »

more info before we get to the questionable stuff

this is an interesting site and the list is looonnnnnnnggg so go to the link if you are curious

 BLOODBOOK.COM - Blood Information for Life!

  Page Summary

long long list   here are only a few

United States white 83.4%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Native American 0.8% (1992)

United Kingdom English 81.5%; Scottish 9.6%; Irish 2.4%; Welsh 1.9%; Ulster 1.8%; West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

Portugal Homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Brazil white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and African 38%, African 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

A word about DNA Genealogy and Anthropology Testing - DNA research on full-blooded indigenous populations from around the world has led to the discovery and documentation of genetic markers that are unique to populations, ethnicity and/or deep ancestral migration patterns. The markers having very specific modes of inheritance, and which are relatively unique to specific populations, are used to assess probabilities of ancestral relatedness. Available services include: Ancestral Heritage DNA testing, Native American DNA Verification, Y-Chromosome DNA Testing and mtDNA Sequence Analysis.

Rare blood types can cause Blood supply problems for unprepared Blood banks and hospitals. For example, the rare Blood type, Duffy-negative Blood, occurs much more frequently in people of African ancestry. The relatively rarity of this rare Blood type in the rest of the North-American population can result in a shortage of that rare Blood type for patients of African ethnicity, in need of a Blood transfusion. Keep in mind, if you have a rare Blood type, there may be some risk in traveling to parts of the world where your rare Blood type may be in short supply.


Why do we have different blood types, with some being compatible and others incompatible?

It seems like a weird way for humans to have evolved

17 Answers..see link for the rest

Originally Answered: From an evolutionary perspective, is there an advantage to humans having different blood types?

Not all species do have multiple blood groups, so perhaps it's just one of those things. However, many mammals do have multiple blood groups, so perhaps it is a selected trait.

One likely explanation is pathogen selection. Blood groups per se are only reflections of a wider distribution of cell surface receptors.  That is, while we notice them most on blood cells, the different receptor structures are much more widely distributed among our tissues.  And many viruses do use the broad category of these receptors to get inside cells. So if you have different receptors than your neighbor, the virus that just infected her may be less effective at infecting you - hence selection for diversity.

A good example of this, by the way, is noroviruses, which do use these structures and which are clearly shown to have different infectability for people with different blood groups. The effect is less clear for other viruses but there are suggestions of an effect for several types.


and who says you are stuck with the same blood type thur out your life ?

How to change your blood type without even trying

Esther Inglis-Arkell
Filed to: biology   
2/25/12 3:30pm

Blood types were once thought to be with people for life. And, in almost every case, they're still thought to be with a person for life. But there is one patient whose blood type actually changed. A liver transplant, apparently, has a shot of changing a person's blood type.

There was once a simple time in human history when everyone had just one blood type, and that blood type was O negative. It wasn't called O at the time, of course, because even if anyone was looking at it, it would just have been blood to them. But life kept up its usual trick of evolving, and suddenly, on the surface of the lovely, smooth, red blood cells were little agglutinations of protein. There was what's now known as the Rh factor, the thing that turns O negative blood into O positive blood. Then there were other little clumps of protein, which separated Rh positive blood and Rh negative blood into A and B types. For the vast majority of history, only the Rh factor caused any bother. The system of an Rh negative woman who became pregnant with an Rh positive baby could see the infant's blood type as an outside body, and attack it. This was such a selector that today eighty-five percent of people are Rh positive.

Meanwhile, A and B types only began troubling humankind by the time blood transfusions and organ transplants were happening. (Before that, any human blood or organs entering the body generally came via the stomach, which isn't that fussy about blood types.) Again, the immune system would attack the strangely bedecked blood cells and cause medical problems. Type O patients, roughly forty-five percent of the population, could give out their blood and organs, but couldn't receive anyone else's. The Rh factor of the blood depended on what type of medical procedure was being done.

And so the world became concerned with these little blobs on blood, and with the genes that caused them. Since it was genetic, blood type was for life, and there was no way around the variations (Two more of which were found just recently. The Junior and Langereis, which affect about 50,000 people in Japan.) so there wasn't anything to be done except finding universal O negative donors and draining them like Capri Sun juice bags. So imagine people's surprise when they found out that blood type can change.

Technically, it depends on what people mean by blood type. The genes don't change. However, people noticed that after bone marrow transplants, recovered patients sometimes slowly developed their donor's blood types. The marrow was used making one kind of blood, and it would continue, slowly filling people with cells that didn't match their genotype. That made sense. Scientists had put a new manufacturing center in their patient. It would make what it had always made. It also made a certain, if surprising, sense that cancers that affected blood and bone marrow could change a person's expressed blood type as well.

 Then an infant with rubella, who has been typed as A many times in the first eight weeks of her life, suddenly lost her A agglutinations. At four months old, her blood type had actually changed. This may sound eerie to us, but it was good news to those who wanted to turn blood into a fluid that can be donated from anyone to anyone, including to and from one of those 50,000 people in Japan. Anything that could shear off agglutinations could make every bag of blood into a universal donor bag. It just, preferably, shouldn't be rubella.

After years of searching, the best candidate for an agglutination-snipper came from a special mushroom. (No, not that one.) An enzyme isolated from fungi was found to turn any blood, any blood at all, to type O, and it did it while the blood was in the bag, not in the patient. This can change blood into a fluid that can be given to anyone, and given the shortages at blood banks, anything that made blood more available to all patients is a good thing. The method is still being tested, but hopefully blood will become a lot more common soon.

But there is still one extraordinary blood type change mystery still out there, in the form of what today is a nineteen-year-old girl. As a nine-year-old, the girl's liver failed. A transplant liver was found, and the surgery was successful. Unfortunately, the girl began to get sick on the drugs that she had to take to force her body not to reject the new liver. Rejection is a huge concern for all donors. People have to take anti-rejection drugs their whole lives. Sickening immediately when taking them was a very bad sign. And then scientists typed her blood. The girl had spontaneously changed her blood, or rather her liver had spontaneously changed her blood. Stem cells from the liver got to her bone marrow, and then to her entire immune system. Slowly her blood type change from O negative to O positive, and her body accepted the liver. She was taken off the drugs, since she didn't actually need them anymore. Doctors called it an one-in-six-billion event. It would be great, for many transplant patients, if someday we could make the odds a little better than that.

Offline zorgon

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #8 on: June 14, 2015, 09:37:08 AM »

more info before we get to the questionable stuff


Offline Shasta56

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #9 on: June 14, 2015, 09:55:20 AM »
When my former mother-in-law had cancer surgery, she had quite a bit of blood work done.  Somewhere in all of that, genetic markers for black DNA were observed.  My ex was appalled.  I reminded him that he has Choctaw in his ancestry,  and that blacks intermarried into the Choctaw nation.  Under antiquated laws, my daughter and grandkids would be considered black.

@Sgt... I found out my husband's blood type when I ran across his dog tags from his Vietnam days.  He didn't know his blood type before that.

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space otter

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #10 on: June 14, 2015, 10:18:58 AM »
ok almost to the fun believe it or don't part..but we need to understand that the blood types mean something and that they can be manipulated

you may be getting a bacteria conversion of type  if  the hospital uses this it important to know what you are getting?.....who decides?..knowledge is power

Conversion makes all blood type O

New technique could stretch blood bank inventories by removing A and B molecules

By Jennifer Cutraro 
 Globe Correspondent / March 24, 2008 

Savvy shopkeepers know to put the oldest milk cartons at the front of the grocery-store shelf. In a similar way, blood banks around the country make the most efficient use of their blood supply by using their oldest units of blood first in transfusions.

But a recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests cardiac patients receiving blood that is more than two weeks old suffer greater risks of complications such as kidney failure. While the study does not recommend changing current practices, it underscores a persistent challenge that blood banks face: how to increase blood turnover and avoid wasting unused and less-common blood types.

One local biotech company might have at least a partial solution to the problem: ZymeQuest Inc., in Beverly, has developed a technology that converts all blood types to O, the universal donor.

The technology could remove some of the logistical and inventory challenges confronting blood-banking services around the country, said Christopher Stowell, director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Blood Transfusion Service, who has no connection to the company.

"The margin between donation and need is pretty thin, so conversion would certainly be a convenience," said Stowell, also an assistant professor of pathology at Harvard Medical School. "O is the blood type we use in emergency situations when we don't have time to check a patients' blood type. The O units are, for that reason, always in tight supply."

Simple sugar molecules on the surface of red blood cells determine a person's blood type. One type of sugar molecule indicates type A blood, another indicates type B blood, and individuals with both sugars on their blood cells have the blood type AB. Individuals who lack all of these sugars - roughly 40 percent of the population - have blood type O.

The body's immune system recognizes its own sugar molecules, but sees sugars of another type as foreign invaders. That's why a person with type A blood can't receive a transfusion from someone with type B blood: The type A immune system would attack the new blood as foreign, making the person gravely ill.

Because type O blood carries neither of these sugars, it sails undetected right past the immune systems of type A, B, and AB individuals. For this reason, patients with any blood type can receive type O blood.

The ZymeQuest system uses enzymes isolated from bacteria to strip those A and B sugars off the surface of red blood cells, said Henrik Clausen, a scientific consultant to the company and professor of molecular medicine at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. Then the red blood cells are washed with a saline solution to remove the enzymes and chopped-off sugars using a cell-washing device designed and built by ZymeQuest. The device can simultaneously process 8 units of blood, of 500 milliliters each.

"It's a fairly simple process," Clausen said. "The key obstacle is to find enzymes with the right specificity so that they take off only the one sugar and leave other molecules on the cell surface intact."

The hunt for blood-converting enzymes goes back more than 25 years, when a researcher at the New York Blood Center discovered he could cleave the B-type sugar off red blood cells using an enzyme he isolated from unroasted green coffee beans, then safely transfuse these cells into people, Clausen said.

ZymeQuest obtained the intellectual property behind this technology, but because these coffee-based enzymes do not very efficiently convert blood, Clausen began searching eight years ago for other enzymes that would work better at room temperature and a neutral pH.

"We didn't know if enzymes with these properties even existed in nature," he said. So he and his colleagues scanned 2,500 bacterial and fungal sources for enzymes that might do the job. They found a few contenders with specific abilities to recognize and snip apart the connection holding A and B sugars to the surface of red blood cells, and are now incorporating these enzymes into their blood conversion system.

ZymeQuest is in the early stages of phase 2 clinical trials with both type A and type B conversion systems, said chief financial officer Tom Fitzgerald. He expects their technology to be in the trial and testing phase for at least three to four more years. It's not yet clear, he said, how much the final process will cost per pint of blood.

Dr. Richard Benjamin, chief medical officer at the American Red Cross national headquarters in Washington, said he's been following ZymeQuest's progress for about five years.

"The technology has obstacles that the company has to deal with. It's not as simple as we originally thought it might be," Benjamin said. "Whether the system in development is going to be practical and cost effective, only time will tell."

And even if the technology is perfected, he said, there's not a lot of extra type O blood in the blood supply waiting to be transformed. Only about 3 percent of all donated blood is wasted nationwide, according to the 2005 Nationwide Blood Collection and Utilization Survey Report.

Steve Sloan, director of pediatric transfusion medicine at Children's Hospital Boston, said he remains cautious about blood conversion.

"The fact is, when you modify cells, it can cause risks and changes that you don't expect," he said, pointing out that any such risks would likely become clear in clinical trials.

"It's a good technology in that it can increase our inventory of type O red cells," said Sloan, who has done work for ZymeQuest in the past. "But how expensive is that? And for the same cost, could we just recruit more blood donors to increase our supply of type O blood?"


Scientists convert blood for universal use

Originally published April 2, 2007 at 12:00 am  |  Updated April 2, 2007 at 2:00 am 

Danish researchers have perfected an inexpensive and efficient way to convert types A, B and AB blood into type O, the universal-donor blood...

By Thomas H. Maugh II

Danish researchers have perfected an inexpensive and efficient way to convert types A, B and AB blood into type O, the universal-donor blood that can be given to anyone — an achievement that promises to make transfusions safer and relieve shortages of type O blood.

The team reported Sunday in the journal Nature Biotechnology that they isolated bacterial enzymes that safely remove from red blood cells the sugar molecules that provoke an immune reaction in the recipient.

Previous studies of type O blood produced from type B by a different method have shown it to be both safe and effective, and the researchers are now conducting clinical trials with the new product.
Mismatching of blood causes at least half of all transfusion-related deaths. And the need for precisely matched blood drives the costly and inefficient process of shuttling units of blood between regional blood banks and hospitals to match daily requirements.

“Those issues could be largely resolved if there were a universally transfusible blood supply,” said Doug Clibourn, chief executive of ZymeQuest in Beverly, Mass., which is developing the technology.

The problem involves sugar molecules on the surface of red blood cells. Type A blood has one set of sugars and type B has another, while type O has none. People with type A blood have antibodies against the type B sugars, people with type B have antibodies against type A, and people with type O have antibodies against both.

If a person receives mismatched blood, the antibodies attack red blood cells, producing a potentially fatal breakdown of red cells.

In the 1980s, the late Jack Goldstein of the New York Blood Center isolated an enzyme from coffee beans that could convert type B to type O. Clinical trials of the enzyme-produced blood showed it behaved no differently from normal blood in hospitalized patients.

But the enzymes involved were expensive and had to be used under highly acidic conditions that damaged the red cells. Goldstein’s team also was not able to find an enzyme that would convert type A to type O.

a consequence, the development was halted.

ZymeQuest commissioned cellular biologist Henrik Clausen of the University of Copenhagen to search for new enzymes to carry out the conversion. Clausen and his team sifted through more than 2,500 bacteria and fungi before identifying the two candidates cited in the Nature Biotechnology report.

The discovery could be a major breakthrough in improving the blood supply, wrote Geoff Daniels of England’s Bristol Institute for Transfusion Sciences in an editorial accompanying the article.

The new enzymes are more potent than previously used ones and, more important, they work at room temperature and neutral pH, which is very good for blood cells, said Dr. Martin Olsson of Lund University in Sweden. In an hour, they remove all the sugar molecules from the surface of red blood cells, after which they can be easily washed away.

The team initially isolated blood from healthy individuals, converted the red cells to type O and injected them back into the donors, said Olsson, who is overseeing the clinical trials.

After that study showed no problems, they began a larger clinical trial using donor blood. Olsson refused to comment on the results but confirmed there have been no adverse reactions to the product.

Clibourn said he expects results from the trial to be available later this year.


Chiron and ZymeQuest(R) form Partnership for Enzyme Conversion Of Red Blood Cells
- System would convert non-O red blood cells to universal-donor

 red blood cells -

 - Agreement expands Chiron's position in blood safety -

EMERYVILLE, Calif. and BEVERLY, Mass., Jan. 5 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ --
 Chiron Corporation (Nasdaq:   CHIR) and ZymeQuest(R) Inc. announced today that
 they have formed a partnership to develop and commercialize ZymeQuest's
 enzymatic conversion system, which converts groups A, B and AB red blood cells
 to enzyme-converted group O (ECO(R)) red blood cells.  Under the terms of the
 agreement, Chiron will share in the costs of developing and commercializing
 the enzymatic conversion system.  In addition, Chiron will make an equity
 investment in ZymeQuest and obtain worldwide marketing and commercial rights
 for the technology.  ZymeQuest will continue to be responsible for developing
 and manufacturing its enzyme conversion products.  Financial terms of the
 agreement were not disclosed.
     "This agreement represents a major advance for Chiron in the realm of
 blood safety," said Jack Goldstein, president, Chiron Blood Testing.
 "ZymeQuest's innovative technology will fill a critical need for blood and
 transfusion centers.  All group A, B, and AB red cells will be able to be
 converted to ECO, which, along with Group O, can be transfused to all
 individuals without transfusion reaction.  This technology will decrease the
 potential difficulties associated with mismatched blood and also reduce
 inventory problems at blood banks caused by shortages of group O red cells.
 In addition, the technology could reduce the amount of donor blood discarded
 because of outdating.  This partnership is another example of Chiron's
 commitment to looking for new ways to meet the needs of our customers and
 helping improve blood safety worldwide."
     "This alliance with Chiron is an important milestone for ZymeQuest," said
 Douglas L. Clibourn, president and chief executive officer of ZymeQuest.  "By
 assuring and maintaining a safe and adequate blood supply in a cost effective
 manner, the delivery of an all group O and ECO inventory of red blood cells
 could have a significant logistical and financial impact on the worldwide
 blood delivery system.  Having the participation of a company with the
 international stature of Chiron as a partner and as an equity investor will
 help us reach our commercialization goals and our mission of transforming
 transfusion medicine."
     About Universal Red Blood Cells
     Group O red cells are known as universal red blood cells because they can
 be transfused safely to recipients of any ABO blood group without the risk of
 morbidity or mortality associated with a transfusion of incompatible red
 cells.  Preliminary clinical trial results indicate that ECO red cells will
 function like group O universal red cells.  A universally transfusable
 inventory of red blood cells could decrease the cost and complexity of
 inventory management, reduce the number of red cells lost due to outdating,
 and improve the safety of red cell transfusions.
     About Chiron Blood Testing
     Chiron Blood Testing is dedicated to preventing the spread of infectious
 diseases through the development of novel blood-screening tools that protect
 the world's blood supply.  Chiron's Procleix(R) assays and systems, developed
 in collaboration with Gen-Probe Incorporated, utilize state-of-the-art nucleic
 acid testing (NAT) technology to detect RNA and DNA in donated blood, plasma,
 organs and tissue during the very early stages of infection, when infectious
 agents are present but cannot be detected by immunodiagnostic screening
 technologies.  Through its joint business with Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics,
 Chiron also develops and markets a line of immunoassay screening, diagnostic,
 and supplemental hepatitis and retrovirus tests.  For more information about
 Chiron Blood Testing visit
     About ZymeQuest, Inc.
     ZymeQuest, Inc., located in Beverly, Massachusetts, is a privately owned
 company pioneering the discovery, development and commercialization of
 enzymatic blood conversion products for use in transfusion medicine.
 ZymeQuest's technology is based on the use of proprietary enzymes and state-
 of-the-art processes to convert human red blood cells from blood groups A, B,
 and AB to enzyme converted group O (ECO) cells.  For more information about
 ZymeQuest, visit the company's website at
     This news release contains forward-looking statements, including
 statements regarding sales growth, product development initiatives and new
 product marketing that involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to
 change.  A full discussion of Chiron's operations and financial condition,
 including factors that may affect its business and future prospects, is
 contained in documents the company has filed with the SEC, including the form
 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2003, and the form 10-K for year
 ended December 31, 2002, and will be contained in all subsequent periodic
 filings made with the SEC.  These documents identify important factors that
 could cause the company's actual performance to differ from current
 expectations, including the outcomes of clinical trials, regulatory review and
 approvals, manufacturing capabilities, intellectual property protections and
 defenses, stock-price and interest-rate volatility, and marketing
 effectiveness.  In particular, there can be no assurance that Chiron will
 increase sales of existing products, successfully develop and receive approval
 to market new products, or achieve market acceptance for such new products.
 There can be no assurance that Chiron's out-licensing activity will generate
 significant revenue, nor that its in-licensing activities will fully protect
 it from claims of infringement by third parties.
     Consistent with SEC Regulation FD, we do not undertake an obligation to
 update the forward-looking information we are giving today.
     Note: Procleix is a trademark of Chiron Corporation.  ZymeQuest and ECO
 are trademarks of ZymeQuest, Inc.

SOURCE  Chiron Corporation



Transfus Clin Biol. 2004 Feb;11(1):33-9.

Universal red blood cells--enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B antigens.

Olsson ML1, Hill CA, de la Vega H, Liu QP, Stroud MR, Valdinocci J, Moon S, Clausen H, Kruskall MS.

Author information


Accidental transfusion of ABO-incompatible red blood cells (RBCs) is a leading cause of fatal transfusion reactions. To prevent this and to create a universal blood supply, the idea of converting blood group A and B antigens to H using specific exo-glycosidases capable of removing the immunodominant sugar residues was pioneered by Goldstein and colleagues at the New York Blood Center in the early 1980s. Conversion of group B RBCs to O was initially carried out with alpha-galactosidase extracted from coffee beans. These enzyme-converted O (ECO) RBCs appeared to survive normally in all recipients independent of blood group. The clinical trials moved from small infusions to single RBC units and finally multiple and repeated transfusions. A successful phase II trial utilizing recombinant enzyme was reported by Kruskall and colleagues in 2000. Enzymatic conversion of group A RBCs has lagged behind due to lack of appropriate glycosidases and the more complex nature of A antigens. Identification of novel bacterial glycosidases with improved kinetic properties and specificities for the A and B antigens has greatly advanced the field. Conversion of group A RBCs can be achieved with improved glycosidases and the conversion conditions for both A and B antigens optimized to use more cost-efficient quantities of enzymes and gentler conditions including neutral pH and short incubation times at room temperature. Of the different strategies envisioned to create a universal blood supply, the ECO concept is the only one, for which human clinical trials have been performed. This paper discusses some biochemical and clinical aspects of this developing technology.

PMID: 14980547  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Enzymes convert all donor blood to group O
18:00 01 April 2007 by Peter Aldhous

Blood made suitable for all
Published online 1 April 2007
Alison Abbott

as you can see it's not real new..and seems to already be a cash cow

Offline zorgon

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #11 on: June 14, 2015, 01:41:22 PM »
I recall I did an article recently on the question of DNA and blood transfusion... if the DNA from the donor survives,

I got a lot of interest at FB but never an answer  Seems no one knows 

Hmmmm  8)

ETA:   Just saw this

Enzymes convert all donor blood to group O
18:00 01 April 2007 by Peter Aldhous

Offline Dyna

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #12 on: June 14, 2015, 01:46:19 PM »
I suppose you noticed this: :)
PS: I don't know what's my blood type. :(

That should read Does NOT allow...
The cow’s blood product was painstakingly administered over two days

it still comes from blood and most JW's would not use it because of that.
When the debate is lost,
slander becomes the tool of the loser.

space otter

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #13 on: June 14, 2015, 04:53:14 PM »

well all the hype in the woo woo stuff seems to based in the RH factor
and to me it is something I need to read slowly and ponder because I find it complex when reading in depth
but to go into conversation on the woo-woo stuff you hafta have a bit of basic understanding

so with that in mind I will try to post the info in the simplest explaination
and links for anyone wanting more info

woo woo -  sorry to be so soft by using such a label for the stuff to come  but it covers all of the other than medical label

very simply

Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited trait that refers to a specific protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive — the most common Rh factor. If your blood lacks the protein, you're Rh negative.


Rh factor

An individual either has, or does not have, the "Rh factor" on the surface of their red blood cells.

This term strictly refers only to the most immunogenic D antigen of the Rh blood group system, or the Rh? blood group system.

The status is usually indicated by Rh positive (Rh+ does have the D antigen)
Rh negative (Rh? does not have the D antigen) suffix to the ABO blood type.

 However, other antigens of this blood group system are also clinically relevant.

 These antigens are listed separately (see below: Rh nomenclature).

 In contrast to the ABO blood group, immunization against Rh can generally only occur through blood transfusion or placental exposure during pregnancy in women

Rh nomenclature

The Rh blood group system has two sets of nomenclatures: one developed by Ronald Fisher and R.R. Race, the other by Wiener.

Both systems reflected alternative theories of inheritance.

The Fisher-Race system, which is more commonly in use today, uses the CDE nomenclature. This system was based on the theory that a separate gene controls the product of each corresponding antigen (e.g., a "D gene" produces D antigen, and so on). However, the d gene was hypothetical, not actual.

The Wiener system used the Rh–Hr nomenclature. This system was based on the theory that there was one gene at a single locus on each chromosome, each contributing to production of multiple antigens. In this theory, a gene R1 is supposed to give rise to the “blood factors” Rh0, rh’, and hr” (corresponding to modern nomenclature of the D, C and e antigens) and the gene r to produce hr’ and hr” (corresponding to modern nomenclature of the c and e antigens).[6]

Notations of the two theories are used interchangeably in blood banking (e.g., Rho(D) meaning RhD positive). Wiener's notation is more complex and cumbersome for routine use. Because it is simpler to explain, the Fisher-Race theory has become more widely used.

DNA testing has shown that are partially correct.[citation needed] There are in fact two linked genes, the RHD gene which produces a single immune specificity (anti-D) and the RHCE gene with multiple specificities (anti-C, anti-c, anti-E, anti-e). Thus, Wiener's postulate that a gene could have multiple specificities (something many did not give credence to originally) has been proven correct. On the other hand, Wiener's theory that there is only one gene has proven incorrect, as has the Fischer-Race theory that there are three genes, rather than the 2. The CDE notation used in the Fisher-Race nomenclature is sometimes rearranged to DCE to more accurately represent the co-location of the C and E encoding on the RhCE gene, and to make interpretation easier.

getting more complex

Rh system antigens

The proteins which carry the Rh antigens are transmembrane proteins, whose structure suggest that they are ion channels.[7] The main antigens are D, C, E, c and e, which are encoded by two adjacent gene loci, the RHD gene which encodes the RhD protein with the D antigen (and variants)[8] and the RHCE gene which encodes the RhCE protein with the C, E, c and e antigens (and variants).[9] There is no d antigen. Lowercase "d" indicates the absence of the D antigen (the gene is usually deleted or otherwise nonfunctional).

Rh phenotypes are readily identified by identifying the presence or absence of the Rh surface antigens. As can be seen in the table below, most of the Rh phenotypes can be produced by several different Rh genotypes. The exact genotype of any individual can only be identified by DNA analysis. Regarding patient treatment, only the phenotype is usually of any clinical significance to ensure a patient is not exposed to an antigen they are likely to develop antibodies against. A probable genotype may be speculated on, based on the statistical distributions of genotypes in the patient's place of origin.

Rh phenotypes and genotypes   see chart at link


If both of a child's parents are Rh negative, the child will definitely be Rh negative. Otherwise the child may be Rh positive or Rh negative, depending on the parents' specific genotypes.

The D antigen is inherited as one gene (RHD) (on the short arm of the first chromosome, p36.13–p34.3) with various alleles. Though very much simplified, one can think of alleles that are positive or negative for the D antigen. The gene codes for the RhD protein on the red cell membrane. D? individuals who lack a functional RHD gene do not produce the D antigen, and may be immunized by D+ blood.

The epitopes for the next 4 most common Rh antigens, C, c, E and e are expressed on the highly similar RhCE protein that is genetically encoded in the RHCE gene, also found on chromosome 1. It has been shown that the RHD gene arose by duplication of the RHCE gene during primate evolution. Mice have just one RH gene.

The RHAG gene, responsible for encoding Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) is found on chromosome 6a.

The polypeptides produced from the RHD and RHCE genes form a complex on the red blood cell membrane with the Rh-associated glycoprotein.


On the basis of structural homology it has been proposed that the product of RHD gene, the RhD protein, is a membrane transport protein of uncertain specificity (CO2 or NH3) and unknown physiological role.

The three-dimensional structure of the related RHCG protein and biochemical analysis of the RhD protein complex indicates that the RhD protein is one of three subunits of an ammonia transporter.

 Three recent studies have reported a protective effect of the RhD-positive phenotype, especially RhD heterozygosity, against the negative effect of latent toxoplasmosis on psychomotor performance in infected subjects.

RhD-negative compared to RhD-positive subjects without anamnestic titres of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies have shorter reaction times in tests of simple reaction times.

 And conversely, RhD-negative subjects with anamnestic titres (i.e. with latent toxoplasmosis) exhibited much longer reaction times than their RhD-positive counterparts.

The published data suggested that only the protection of RhD-positive heterozygotes was long term in nature;
 the protection of RhD-positive homozygotes decreased with duration of the infection
 while the performance of RhD-negative homozygotes decreased immediately after the infection.

Currently, 50 antigens have been described in the Rh group system;

 among those described here, the D, C, c, E and e antigens are the most important.

The others are much less frequently encountered or are rarely clinically significant. Each is given a number, though the highest assigned number (CEST or RH57 according to the ISBT terminology) is not an accurate reflection of the antigens encountered since many (e.g. Rh38) have been combined, reassigned to other groups, or otherwise removed.

Rh antibodies

Rh antibodies are IgG antibodies which are acquired through exposure to Rh-positive blood (generally either through pregnancy or transfusion of blood products). The D antigen is the most immunogenic of all the non-ABO antigens. Approximately 80% of individuals who are D-negative and exposed to a single D-positive unit will produce an anti-D antibody. The percentage of alloimmunization is significantly reduced in patients who are actively exsanguinating (some say to approx 15%)

All Rh antibodies except D display dosage (antibody reacts more strongly with red cells homozygous for an antigen than cells heterozygous for the antigen (EE stronger reaction vs Ee).

If anti-E is detected, the presence of anti-c should be strongly suspected (due to combined genetic inheritance). It is therefore common to select c-negative and E-negative blood for transfusion patients who have an anti-E. Anti-c is a common cause of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions.[

ok what follows are very interesting links for those who need more indepth info
chapter 7  the Rh blood group

Rh click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced blood types were discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener.  This was 40 years after Landsteiner had discovered the ABO blood groups.  Over the last half century, we have learned far more about the processes responsible for Rh types.  This blood group may be the most complex genetically of all blood type systems since it involves 45 different antigens on the surface of red cells that are controlled by 2 closely linked genes on chromosome 1.

The Rh system was named after rhesus click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced monkeys, since they were initially used in the research to make the antiserum for typing blood samples.  If the antiserum agglutinates your red cells, you are Rh+ click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced.  If it doesn't, you are Rh- click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced.  Despite its actual genetic complexity, the inheritance of this trait usually can be predicted by a simple conceptual model in which there are two alleles, D and d.  Individuals who are homozygous dominant (DD) or heterozygous (Dd) are Rh+.  Those who are homozygous recessive (dd) are Rh- (i.e., they do not have the key Rh antigens).

I'm sure you can find more if you want

basics over now to the woo woo be warned

Offline The Seeker

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Re: B L O O D
« Reply #14 on: June 14, 2015, 08:03:40 PM »
I am AB-; my mother was AB-; her dad was Ab-; all three of my kids are AB-;
going to have to check into what my grandkids are...

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