Author Topic: Nikola Tesla - Library Thread  (Read 2944 times)

Offline zorgon

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Nikola Tesla - Library Thread
« on: April 05, 2013, 04:34:39 PM »
Nikola Tesla - Library Thread

This thread is a work in progress. Items will appear in no particular order... when I have enough collected I will reorganize the thread.

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nikola Tesla - Library Thread
« Reply #1 on: April 05, 2013, 04:35:13 PM »
Terrestrial Stationary Waves

Terrestrial stationary waves is a persistent spherical conductor “single-wire” surface wave electrical transmission line phenomenon arising across the Earth's surface by virtue of the highly conductive nature of the earth itself. It was considered by Nikola Tesla to be his most important discovery. Earth's surface constitutes an interface that supports the wave.

On July 3, 1899, Tesla claimed discovery of this new geo-electrical phenomenon, which he said would allow for the transmission of electrical energy around the world.

    That communication without wires to any point of the globe is practicable with such apparatus would need no demonstration, but through a discovery which I made I obtained absolute certitude. Popularly explained, it is exactly this: When we raise the voice and hear an echo in reply, we know that the sound of the voice must have reached a distant wall, or boundary, and must have been reflected from the same. Exactly as the sound, so an electrical wave is reflected, and the same evidence which is afforded by an echo is offered by an electrical phenomenon known as a "stationary" wave — that is, a wave with fixed nodal and ventral regions. Instead of sending sound-vibrations toward a distant wall, I have sent electrical vibrations toward the remote boundaries of the earth, and instead of the wall the earth has replied. In place of an echo I have obtained a stationary electrical wave, a wave reflected from afar.

Terrestrial stationary waves were first observed by Tesla and formed the basis for his plans regarding the transmission of electrical energy without wires for the purposes of simultaneous point-to-point telecommunications, broadcasting, and the transmission of electrical power.

    The discovery of the stationary terrestrial waves, showing that, despite its vast extent, the entire planet can be thrown into resonant vibration like a little tuning fork; that electrical oscillations suited to its physical properties and dimensions pass through it unimpeded, in strict obedience to a simple mathematical law, has proved beyond the shadow of a doubt that the earth, considered as a channel for conveying electrical energy, even in such delicate and complex transmissions as human speech or musical composition, is infinitely superior to a wire or cable, however well designed.

Schumann resonance hypothesis

It has been suggested this phenomenon arises in the Earth's interior space because of the conductive ionosphere's action as a waveguide. The limited dimensions of the earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves. The cavity is naturally excited by energy from lightning strikes. The Schumann Resonance is a set of terrestrial stationary waves in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Lower frequencies and those at or below longwave bands travel most efficiently as a longitudinal wave and create stationary waves. The ionosphere and the Earth's surface constitute an interface that supports the wave. This resonant cavity is a particular standing wave pattern formed by waves confined in the cavity. The waves correspond to the wavelengths which are reinforced by constructive interference after many reflections from the cavity's reflecting surfaces.

The transfer of electrical energy with small losses in this manner is problematic because the standing wave would occur in the earth-ionosphere cavity, which is too lossy to enable a standing wave of sufficient amplitude to be generated. This limitation is independent of the power of the transmitter. In order for the transmitter to feed power to the receiver as efficiently as it would in a closed low-loss circuit, the power transferred to the receiver should be able to transfer power of the same order of magnitude reciprocally back to the transmitter. This is a necessary condition for the transmitter to “feel” the load connected to the receiver and to supply power to it via the standing wave. In order to do this, the required Q of the earth-ionosphere cavity would have to be on the order of 10^6 or so at the lowest Schumann frequency of about 7.3 Hz. Measurements based on the spectrum of natural electrical radio noise yield a Q of only about 5 to 10. [Henry Bradford]

Regarding this recent notion of power transmission through the earth-ionosphere cavity, a consideration of the earth-ionosphere or concentric spherical shell waveguide propagation parameters as they are known today shows that wireless power transmission by direct excitation of a Schumann cavity resonance mode is not realizable.

    The conceptual difficulty with this model is that, at the very low frequencies that Tesla said that he employed (1-50 kHz), earth-ionosphere waveguide excitation, now well understood, would seem to be impossible with the either the Colorado Springs or the Long Island apparatus (at least with the apparatus that is visible in the photographs of these facilities).

Furthermore, the maximum recommended operating frequencies of 25 kHz as specified by Tesla is far above the highest easily observable Schumann resonance mode (the 9th overtone) that exists at approximately 66.4 Hz.  Tesla's selection of 25 kHz is wholly inconsistent with the operation of a system that is based upon the direct excitation of a Schumann resonance mode.

Terrestrial spherical-conductor surface wave transmission line

On the other hand, Tesla's concept was that of a global wireless electrical power transmission grid and telecommunications network based upon energy transmission by means of a spherical conductor “single-wire” surface wave transmission line and a propagating TM00 mode. A feasibility study using a sufficiently powerful and properly tuned Tesla coil earth-resonance transmitter is called for.
« Last Edit: April 05, 2013, 04:37:02 PM by zorgon »

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nikola Tesla - Library Thread
« Reply #2 on: April 05, 2013, 04:35:25 PM »

Some Papers:

1) THE PROBLEM OF INCREASING HUMAN ENERGY, by Nikola Tesla - Century Magazine, June 1900

2) TUNED LIGHTNING, by Nikola Tesla - English Mechanic and World of Science, March 8, 1907, pp. 107, 108

3) Bradford, Henry, "Nikola Tesla On Wireless Energy Transmission" The Schumann Cavity Resonance Hypothesis.

4) Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model, K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 10.

5) Elmore, Glenn, "Introduction to the Propagating Wave on a Single Conductor," Corridor Systems Inc., 2009.

6) Marin?i?, Aleksandar, "Research of Nikola Tesla in Long Island Laboratory," International Scientific Conference in Honor of the 130th Anniversary of the Birth of Nikola Tesla, 1986.

7) Nikola Tesla (1905). "The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires As A Means Of Furthering World Peace". Electrical World And Engineer January 7: 21–24.

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nikola Tesla - Library Thread
« Reply #3 on: April 05, 2013, 04:58:34 PM »
Wardenclyffe Tower

Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe lab building, seen in 1904.

Wardenclyffe Tower (1901–1917) also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early wireless transmission tower designed by Nikola Tesla and intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. It was never fully operational,[4] and the tower was demolished in 1917.

The tower was named after James S. Warden, a western lawyer and banker who had purchased land for the endeavor in Shoreham, Long Island, about sixty miles from Manhattan. Here he built a resort community known as Wardenclyffe-On-Sound. Warden believed that with the implementation of Tesla's "world system" a "Radio City" would arise in the area. He offered Tesla 200 acres (81 ha) of land close to a railway line on which to build his wireless telecommunications tower and laboratory facility.


Tesla Ready for Business., New-York tribune., August 07, 1901, Page 4, Image 4 Library of Congress, Washington, DC New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924


Tesla's Wardenclyffe plant on Long Island circa 1902 in partial stage of completion. Work on the 55-foot-diameter (17 m) cupola had not yet begun. Note what appears to be a coal car parked next to the building. From this facility, Tesla hoped to demonstrate wireless transmission of electrical energy to France. Circa 1902

Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility ca. 1898 and in 1901 construction began on the land near Long Island Sound. Architect Stanford White designed the Wardenclyffe facility main building. The tower was designed by W.D. Crow, an associate of White. Funding for Tesla's project was provided by influential industrialists and other venture capitalists. The project was initially backed by the wealthy J. P. Morgan who had invested $150,000 in the facility (more than $3 million in 2009 dollars). In June 1902 Tesla moved his laboratory operations from his Houston Street laboratory to Wardenclyffe.

The project ran into many problems. Financiers began investing in Guglielmo Marconi's system which started regular transatlantic transmission in 1903 and seemed to be doing it with far less expensive equipment. By 1903 Tesla's project, still under construction due to numerous design changes, ran out of money and Morgan declined to fund it any further. Some in the press began turning against the project claiming it was a hoax. Tesla tried to generate more interest in Wardenclyffe by revealing its ability to transmit wireless electricity, but Morgan was not interested, and the 1903 "rich man's panic" on Wall Street dried up any further investment. By July 1904 Morgan (and the other investors) finally decided they would not provide any additional financing. In May 1905 Tesla's patents on alternating current motors and other methods of power transmission expired, halting royalty payments and causing a severe reduction of funding to the Wardenclyffe Tower. In an attempt to find alternative funding Tesla advertised the services of the Wardenclyffe facility but he was met with little success. By this time Tesla had also designed the Tesla turbine at Wardenclyffe and produced Tesla coils for sale to various businesses.

By 1905, since Tesla could not find any more backers, most of the site's activity had to be shut down. Employees were laid off in 1906, but parts of the building remained in use until 1907. In 1908, the property was foreclosed for the first time. Tesla procured a new mortgage from George C. Boldt, proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The facility was partially abandoned around 1911, and the tower structure deteriorated. Between 1912 and 1915, Tesla's finances unraveled, and when the funders wanted to know how they were going to recapture their investments, Tesla was unable to give satisfactory answers. Newspaper headlines of the time labeled it "Tesla's million-dollar folly." The facility's main building was breached and vandalized around this time. Collapse of the Wardenclyffe project may have contributed to the mental breakdown Tesla experienced during this period. Coupled to the personal tragedy of Wardenclyffe was the 1895 fire at 35 South 5th Avenue, New York, in the building which housed Tesla's laboratory. In this fire, he lost much of his equipment, notes and documents. This put Tesla into a state of severe depression.

Post-Tesla era

In 1915, legal ownership of the Wardenclyffe property was transferred to George Boldt of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel for a $20,000 debt (about $400,000 in 2009 dollars). In July 4, 1917, during World War I, the tower was blown up with dynamite on orders of the United States Government which feared German spies were using it and that it could be used as a landmark for German submarines. Tesla was not in New York during the tower's destruction.

George Boldt wished to make the property available for sale. On April 20, 1922, Tesla lost an appeal of judgment versus his backers in the second foreclosure. This effectively locked Tesla out of any future development of the facility. In 1925, the property ownership was transferred to Walter L. Johnson of Brooklyn. On March 6, 1939, Plantacres, Inc. purchased the facility's land and subsequently leased it to Peerless Photo Products, Inc. AGFA Corporation bought the property from Peerless and is the current owner. The main building remains standing to this day. Agfa used the site from 1969 to 1992 then closed the facility. The site has undergone a final cleanup of waste produced during its Photo Products era. The clean up was conducted under the scrutiny of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and paid for by AGFA. In 2009 they put the property up for sale for $1,650,000. Agfa has advertised that the land can “be delivered fully cleared and level.” It says it spent $5 million through September 2008 cleaning up silver and cadmium.

Preservation efforts

Ruins of Wardenclyffe Tower Administration Building in Shoreham, New York. Stanford White Building at the corner of Tesla Street and New York Route 25A in July 2009

On February 14, 1967, the nonprofit public benefit corporation Brookhaven Town Historical Trust was established. It selected the Wardenclyffe facility to be designated as a historic site and as the first site to be preserved by the Trust on March 3, 1967. The Brookhaven Town Historic Trust was rescinded by resolution on February 1, 1972. There were never any appointments made after a legal opinion was received; it was never set up properly. On July 7, 1976, a plaque from Yugoslavia was installed by representatives from Brookhaven National Laboratory near the entrance of the building.  It reads:
Stanford White Building at the corner of Tesla Street and New York Route 25A in July 2009

    July 10, 1976

The sign was stolen from the property in November 2009. An anonymous benefactor is offering a $2000 reward if it is returned to the property.

Designation of the structure as a National Landmark is awaiting completion of plant decommissioning activities by its present owner.

In 1976, an application was filed to nominate the main building for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). It failed to get approval. The Tesla Wardenclyffe Project, Inc. was established in 1994 for the purpose of seeking placement of the Wardenclyffe laboratory-office building and the Tesla tower foundation on both the New York State and NRHP. Its mission is the preservation and adaptive reuse of Wardenclyffe, the century-old laboratory of electrical pioneer Nikola Tesla located in Shoreham, Long Island, New York. In October 1994 a second application for formal nomination was filed. The New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation conducted inspections and determined the facility meets New York State criteria for historic designation. A second visit was made on February 25, 2009. The site cannot be registered until it is nominated by a willing owner.

Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe
Main article: Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe

In August 2012, concerned about an apparent offer to purchase the site and develop it for commercial use, The Oatmeal launched a fundraiser for the Tesla Science Center to raise $1.7 million in order to purchase the property, with the hope of eventually building a museum on the grounds. The state of New York agreed to match donations up half that amount. As of October 3, 2012, the goal of $850,000 had been reached in just over six days after a $33,333 donation from the producers of the Tesla film "Fragments From Olympus-The Vision of Nikola Tesla" put them over the top. A total of $1.37 million was donated, the matching grant from the State of New York brings the total collected to over $2.2 million. The surplus will be used to fund the cleaning and restoration of the property. Tesla, Wardenclyffe and the museum fundraising effort will be the subject of a new documentary being produced called "Tower to the People-Tesla's Dream at Wardenclyffe Continues."

Facility grounds

Artistic representation of the station completed, including the tower structure.

Wardenclyffe is located near the Shoreham Post Office and Shoreham Fire House on Route 25A in Shoreham, Long Island, New York. Wardenclyffe was divided into two main sections. The tower, which was located in the back, and the main building compose the entire facility grounds. At one time the property was about 200 acres (0.81 km2). Now it consists of slightly less than 16 acres (65,000 m2).

The wood-framed tower was 186 feet (57 m) tall and the cupola 68 feet (21 m) in diameter. It had a 55-ton steel (some report it was a better conducting material, such as copper) hemispherical structure at the top (referred to as a cupola). Designed by one of Stanford White's associates, the structure was such as to allow each piece to be taken out if needed and replaced as necessary. The transmitter itself was to have been powered by a 200 kilowatt Westinghouse alternating current industrial generator. Beneath the tower, a shaft sank 120 feet (37 m) into the ground. Sixteen iron pipes were placed one length after another 300 additional feet (94.4 m) in order for the machine, in Tesla's words, "to have a grip on the earth so the whole of this globe can quiver."

The main building occupied the rest of the facility grounds. It included a laboratory area, instrument room, boiler room, generator room and machine shop. Inside the main building, there were electromechanical devices, electrical generators, electrical transformers, glass blowing equipment, X-ray devices, Tesla coils, a remote controlled boat, cases with bulbs and tubes, wires, cables, a library, and an office. It was constructed in the style of the Italian Renaissance.

Telefunken Station

After Wardenclyffe, Tesla built the Telefunken Wireless on the South Shore of Long Island. Some of what he wanted to achieve at Wardenclyffe was achieved with the Telefunken Wireless. In West Sayville, Long Island, New York, Tesla assisted in the building of three 600-foot (180 m) radio towers, creating the western wireless communication station in a North America and Europe network.

Tesla quotations

    "As soon as [the Wardenclyffe facility is] completed, it will be possible for a business man in New York to dictate instructions, and have them instantly appear in type at his office in London or elsewhere. He will be able to call up, from his desk, and talk to any telephone subscriber on the globe, without any change whatever in the existing equipment. An inexpensive instrument, not bigger than a watch, will enable its bearer to hear anywhere, on sea or land, music or song, the speech of a political leader, the address of an eminent man of science, or the sermon of an eloquent clergyman, delivered in some other place, however distant. In the same manner any picture, character, drawing, or print can be transferred from one to another place ..." – "The Future of the Wireless Art," Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, 1908, pg. 67–71.

    "It is not a dream, it is a simple feat of scientific electrical engineering, only expensive – blind, faint-hearted, doubting world! [...] Humanity is not yet sufficiently advanced to be willingly led by the discoverer's keen searching sense. But who knows? Perhaps it is better in this present world of ours that a revolutionary idea or invention instead of being helped and patted, be hampered and ill-treated in its adolescence – by want of means, by selfish interest, pedantry, stupidity and ignorance; that it be attacked and stifled; that it pass through bitter trials and tribulations, through the strife of commercial existence. So do we get our light. So all that was great in the past was ridiculed, condemned, combatted, suppressed – only to emerge all the more powerfully, all the more triumphantly from the struggle." – "The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires as a Means for Furthering Peace," Electrical World and Engineer, January 7, 1905.

Offline thorfourwinds

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Re: Nikola Tesla - Library Thread
« Reply #4 on: November 14, 2013, 08:10:33 PM »


Published on May 27, 2013
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