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Author Topic: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA  (Read 5409 times)

Online astr0144

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Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« on: November 13, 2012, 10:06:48 PM »
I wonder if anyone knows about what the Nuclear test effects that were done at the NTS were  or have been or still are in and around Nevada and Area 51 ?

Certain Radiation as I understand it last for 100s of years before it decays...

Would this not be the case from the Nuke tests done in Nevada...

Or did they use less Radioactive materials for these tests ?

I would assume so...

Did they use a quicker decay Nuclear material ?

Other wise what would had been the full effects at the time...

Is the land still highly radioactive in certain parts...Around Area 51 for eg..?

This is part of an article that refers to the effects of radiation between 1945 and 1992..     

The strategies devised in New Mexico were transplanted to Area 51 and further refined, he says. In some ways the connection between Oppenheimer and Area 51 is even more direct: Area 51 abuts the Nevada Test Site, where, between 1945 and 1992, the government detonated 1,021 nuclear weapons, sprinkling radiation across a vast swath of the Southwest.

Online astr0144

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #1 on: November 13, 2012, 10:32:11 PM »
 Found this info one the radiation effects around Area 51 / NTS..

 
Area 13
This map shows the location of the Project 57 site in Area 13 and its relation to Area 51. Thegroom lake airbase is shown much as it appears today.The first challenge of Project 57 was to select a test site. A lengthy discussion at the firstproject meeting focused on a choice between "Papoose Lake with adjoining valleys and theGroom Lake Valley lying due north of it," both outside the Nevada Test Site.Both sites were considered equal from an operational viewpoint, but the decision wasultimately based on soil contamination levels from previous testing. Samples taken by K. H.Larson of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) indicated that "in the first inch ofcover, maximum plutonium backgrounds differed by a factor of 60."Soil in the Groom Lake area contained a maximum of 0.5-micrograms of plutonium per-square-meter versus 30-micrograms per-square-meter around Papoose Lake. After reviewingthese results, according to the minutes of the first meeting, "the choice of Groom Lake Valleywent uncontested."The Project 57 test site was added to the NTS as Area 13, an approximately 10-by-16-mileblock of land abutting the northeast boundary of the Test Site, and partially overlapping theWatertown facility. The overlap area was not considered part of Area 13. Ground Zero for theshot was only five miles northwest of Groom Lake and seven miles from the main cantonmentarea of the airbase. Personnel approaching the site from the NTS would drive over GroomPass from Yucca Flat, then head north on Valley Road for about eight miles to reach theturnoff for Ground Zero.A formerly secret AEC report dated 14 March 1957 described the new test area, stating that it,
 
"is not contaminated to a degree that would effect the experiment, and, when contaminated,will not interfere with the conduct of the PLUMBBOB nuclear tests which are scheduled tobegin in May 1957. The Armed Forces Special Weapons Project has obtained approval for theuse of the land for the test."An appendix to the report contained a letter to Brigadier General Alfred D. Starbird from Maj.Gen. Alvin R. Luedecke, USAF, Chief of the AFSWP, further explained that "entry into the
 
area has also been approved and has been coordinated with the agency which has beenusing the Range." The XW-25 warhead was flown to the airstrip at Yucca Flat, then trucked toWatertown.It was stored in Building 10 prior to being moved to Area 13 for final placement.The Project 57 shot was originally scheduled for early April, but was pushed back severaltimes. Personnel at Watertown were undoubtedly evacuated before the shot in case ofunfavorable winds that could spread plutonium over the airbase, or an unexpected nuclearyield. Evacuation must have been terribly inconvenient to flight test and training operations atWatertown. According to declassified documents, most of the delays were due to unfavorableweather conditions.Finally, on the morning of 24 April, the signal was sent to the detonator, and the warhead'shigh explosive charge destroyed the weapon. Although there had been no obvious atomicexplosion, a three-man team in protective clothing was dispatched to determine whether ornot any beta or gamma radiation hazard existed from a partial nuclear yield.There was none, but all personnel entering the area were required to wear full protective suitsand respirators to shield themselves from alpha radiation emitted by plutonium.
Plutonium hazards


 This Russian satellite image shows Area 51 and Area 13. Groom Lake is about three mileslong from north to south. Ground Zero for the Project 57 plutonium dispersal test was locatedfive miles northwest of the edge of Groom Lake.Several isotopes of plutonium (Pu) are typically found at safety experiment sites: Pu-238 (witha half-life of 89 years), Pu-239 (24,300 years), Pu-240 (6,600 years), and Pu-241 (14 years).Pu-239 is the most abundant. The decay of Pu-241 produces an americium isotope, Am-241,which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 432 years.Radiation Safety (Rad-Safe) technicians measure gamma emissions from Am-241 with adevice called a FIDLER (Field Instrument for the Determination of Low-Energy Radiation).Am-241 activity in contaminated soil provides a reasonable indication of Pu-239/240 levels.Plutonium emits alpha particles, the weakest form of radiation. A sheet of paper is sufficientshielding against alpha radiation. Although alpha particles are highly energetic, they are not
 
capable of penetrating the dead layers of skin on the surface of the human body. If inhaled,however, even microscopic quantities will cause damage to soft tissues.Particles of plutonium that are absorbed into the bloodstream may be deposited in the lungs,liver, lymph nodes, or in the surfaces of newly formed bone. There, they can cause damageleading to cancer, chronic anemia, osteoporosis, or bone necrosis that may producespontaneous bone fractures. Such results may not manifest until 10, 20, or even 30 yearsafter deposition, depending on the size of the dose. Lung damage may become apparent inonly a few years.Project 57 contaminated over 895 acres with plutonium and americium dust and fragments.The primary hazard to personnel is from resuspension of small particles of plutonium dust inthe air. Soil samples taken in the late 1990s indicate that plutonium particles at Area 13 aremostly smaller than 40 microns across.The exact amount of plutonium expended for the test remains classified, but one pound ofplutonium involved in a fire or explosion could produce, under moderate wind conditions,hazardous contamination as far as a mile downwind.
Alpha contamination at Watertown
 
During Project 57, air samplers were set up in the contaminated area and at Watertown, andreadings were averaged for 24-hour periods for 28 days. According to The Hazards andCharacteristics of Plutonium and Uranium Contamination, published by the Atomic WeaponsTraining Group in 1962,"no consideration was made for wind changes or rain, and the averaged readings...were lowerthan is reasonable."Initial readings at radiation monitoring sites indicated no detectable fallout at Watertown.According to a declassified telex dated from the day after the shot, air samplers were"operating in all populated areas," and would be checked "after a five day seasoning periodand it [was] expected that readings [would] be minor."After all samples were studied, it was determined that there was minor alpha activity for 12days following the shot, but it was "well below operational guidelines." Nevertheless, thismeant that resuspended plutonium dust was reaching the airbase in small amounts.As described in an AEC report on Off-Site Radiological Safety Activities For Project 57, therewere two high-volume air samplers located at Watertown and fallout trays located on the roofsof the Air Weather Building, and a building behind the Maintenance Shop. Minor alpha countswere detected in the trays. Samples of rainwater were collected eleven hours after shot timewhen a brief shower passed across Area 13 and then across Watertown. The samplescontained both alpha and beta particles.Water from the Deer Camp Watering Hole east of Area 13 was also sampled, but onlycontained a small amount of alpha radiation.
« Last Edit: November 13, 2012, 10:37:02 PM by astr0144 »

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #2 on: November 13, 2012, 10:57:42 PM »


NEVADA TEST SITE

Overview

President Truman established the NTS in December 1950, as the nation's on-continent nuclear weapons testing area. Prior to 1950, most tests were conducted in the Pacific. This was costly, time-consuming, and logistically difficult. The first bomb, a one kiloton warhead dropped from an airplane, was detonated on January 27, 1951. Between 1951 and 1962, 126 atmospheric tests of atomic weapons were conducted within the Test Site's boundaries.
What You'll See

Take a walk through "Doom Town", realistic sets constructed by the Atomic Energy Commission to measure effects of atomic weapons on animals and various types of buildings.
Public Tours Dates and Times

The site is only open to the public once a quarter, with the exact day picked a few months in advance. The site is closed on Friday through Sunday, so the public tours will always fall on a Monday through Thursday. To find out the day of the next tour call the Office of Public Affairs at Phone (702) 295-0944. You meet at the Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office in North Las Vegas at 7:00am, and a bus takes you there and returns you by 4:30pm. You need to call several weeks in advance and give them your full name, your date of birth, your Social Security number and your place of birth. Radiation badges are no longer necessary when visiting.


Please note:

A parent or guardian must accompany any participant under 18. The minimum age for taking the tour is 14.
A driver's license or other photo identification is required at time of badging. Foreign national must present a valid passport at time of badging.
Firearms, cameras, recorders, and binoculars are prohibited on the test site.
Casual clothing is recommended. Wear sturdy shoes. No shorts, no skirts, no sandals.
Cafeteria services are no longer available therefore, you need to provide your own lunch.


http://www.atomictourist.com/nts.htm

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #3 on: November 13, 2012, 11:03:07 PM »
Migration of plutonium in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was the location of 828 underground
nuclear tests conducted by the United States between 1956 and
1992 (Fig. 1a). As a result, the NTS contains a large inventory
(.108 Ci) of radioactive material deposited in the subsurface
and thus provides a unique opportunity for studying the transport
of radionuclide contaminants.


https://seaborg.llnl.gov/docs/kersting-et-al-Pu-colloid.pdf

Subcritical Plutonium Experiments at the Nevada Test Site

In 1997 and 1998, a series of three subcritical plutonium experiments
was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These experiments,
which are the first of their kind to be completed at NTS since the
moratorium on underground nuclear testing in 1992, have several
purposes. Foremost among these purposes is the study of plutonium
physics and the maintenance of our readiness to resume underground
nuclear testing should the need arise. These experiments were designed
and fielded by the Dynamic Experiments (DX) Division in
collaboration with the Physics Division and other Los Alamos
divisions, as well as Sandia National Laboratory and Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory. The equation-of-state (EOS)
measurement techniques were developed in DX Division, and they
have been used by DX Division and its predecessors (GMX and M
Divisions) for the past 40 years. Many of the diagnostic and recording
techniques, especially for remote data collection, were developed by
Physics Division for underground nuclear tests and pulsed power
facilities.


http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/p22/subcrits.pdf

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #4 on: November 13, 2012, 11:04:46 PM »
Distribution and Characterization of Plutonium in Soils from Nevada Test Site

Three surface soil samples, contaminated with plutonium by high explosive detonations of subcritical atomic devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), were analyzed for total plutonium content, plutonium distribution in different particle sizes, and leachability by HNO3. Total plutonium averaged about 2,640 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per gram of soil. The highest concentration of plutonium in two samples taken from the same area was in the very fine sand (125-53 µm) fraction (38 and 47%); the third sample from another test area contained the highest concentration in the coarse silt (53-20 µm) fraction (47%).

https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/4/3/JEQ0040030350?access=0&view=pdf

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #5 on: November 13, 2012, 11:07:23 PM »
Plutonium

Plutonium is the heaviest primordial element by virtue of its most stable isotope, plutonium-244, whose half-life of about 80 million years is just long enough for the element to be found in trace quantities in nature. Plutonium is mostly a byproduct of nuclear fission in reactors where some of the neutrons released by the fission process convert uranium-238 nuclei into plutonium.

One utilized isotope of plutonium is plutonium-239, which has a half-life of 24,100 years. Plutonium-239 and plutonium-241 are both fissile, meaning the nuclei of their atoms can split when bombarded by thermal neutrons, releasing energy, gamma radiation and more neutrons. These neutrons can sustain a nuclear chain reaction, leading to applications in nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors.

Plutonium-238 has a half-life of 88 years and emits alpha particles. It is a heat source in radioisotope thermoelectric generators, which are used to power some spacecraft. Plutonium-240 has a high rate of spontaneous fission, raising the neutron flux of any sample it is in. The presence of plutonium-240 limits a sample's usability for weapons or reactor fuel, and determines its grade. Plutonium isotopes are expensive and inconvenient to separate, so particular isotopes are usually manufactured in specialized reactors.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium

Online astr0144

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #6 on: February 02, 2014, 04:51:47 PM »
Watched an Interesting but disturbing TV program called "Americas Darkest Secrets" that discussed about How the Nuclear Testing from the NTS in Nevada close to Area 51 was suggested to have had some very negative Radiation effects on many people within in a certain distance away back in the 1950s to 1990s.

It was said that they tested Nuclear bombs mainly underground at the NTS range..But also tested 3 huge ones Above Ground that were  3 times larger than that of what was released on Japan in WW2.

It suggested that South Western Winds could often carry a lot of the fall out radiation...

It discussed how one city in Utah  "St Georges", was badly effected  where many people died of Cancer caused from the Radiation.

It was also suggested that during the 1950s when they were making & Filming Hollywood Movies that some of the cast & extras also could had been badly effected....One Movie was starring John Wayne "The Conqueror" filmed in Snow Canyon not far from St Georges.. about Gengis Khan that involved a lot of Horses that kicked up a lot of dust during the time they filmed over several weeks/months..

It was believed  that Many Including John Wayne were later effected by Cancer  caused by Radiation fall out that had been carried in the winds and got into the Surrounding ground..ie sand , soils within the deserted area..

The Program sent a scientist to do some checks in present day to see if there were still signs of Radioactivity in the area...

The results were rather disturbing and Dangerous Radiation particles were  found....

I wonder generally what the situation really is around the South West USA..Including Las Vegas....They do get severe dust storms at times..and NO doubt this must carry a LOT of the radioactive Fallout...that if inhaled can still cause Cancer....

It was suggested that the Government were aware what could happen at the time....

I wonder just how many people have suffered from this ?

This Now does Confirm my own thoughts that I was still in the believe that it could still be a concern even since the 1950s..which I did want explaining....The Program has now done that !....



3  JOHN WAYNE CANCER, PENSMORE MANSION, JAMESTOWN
America's Dark Secrets' specialized investigators probe deeply inside hidden sectors, unearthing secrets, mysteries and bizarre conspiracy theories. Did more than 90 cast and crew from John Wayne's 1956 film, The Conqueror, contract some form of cancer from exposure to nuclear fallout while filming in Snow Canyon? Then deep within the lush hills of Ozark Mountains, Jeanette Pavini gains unprecedented access to the mysterious mega-mansion under construction known as "Pensmore". Finally, the startling discovery of a young girl's skull, unearthed at the historic site of America's first permanent settlement - Jamestown - points to evidence of unthinkable human consumption.

http://www.travelchanneltv.eu/series-info.asp?series=America%27s+Dark+Secrets+Declassified&ID=1718&episode=1#.UvACmz1_vIY
« Last Edit: February 02, 2014, 04:56:35 PM by astr0144 »

Offline Amaterasu

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #7 on: February 02, 2014, 05:05:11 PM »
Having just researched about SMART Meters, I have to wonder if Nukashima is not being perpetuated, not cleaned up, so that the "elite" have a scapegoat for the cancers that are being/will be caused by the dirty EM these meters emit.

Hmmmm....
"If the universe is made of mostly Dark Energy...can We use it to run Our cars?"

"If You want peace, take the profit out of war."

Online astr0144

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #8 on: February 02, 2014, 05:21:24 PM »
Amy,

Depending where you refer to....which Countries...If the radiation effects of Fukushima are now so bad ...that its radiation is carried across waters to other Countries...Maybe even by air currents...Then who knows !

You may be right !...I suppose that They certainly could try to convince the public that this is a possibility if they later need to try to cover things up.

It does seem unbelievable that they can be so ruthless if its intentional..or done knowingly...

Online astr0144

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #9 on: February 02, 2014, 05:26:52 PM »
This shows how bad dust storms can get in Las Vegas !

looks as bad as 9/11 at times... :o







Offline Amaterasu

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #10 on: February 02, 2014, 05:31:20 PM »
Amy,

Depending where you refer to....which Countries...If the radiation effects of Fukushima are now so bad ...that its radiation is carried across waters to other Countries...Maybe even by air currents...Then who knows !

You may be right !...I suppose that They certainly could try to convince the public that this is a possibility if they later need to try to cover things up.

It does seem unbelievable that they can be so ruthless if its intentional..or done knowingly...

Since all money systems promote the most psychopathic in Human society, why should We be surprised by (or find "unbelievable") psychopathic plans by the "elite" to be carried out knowingly?
"If the universe is made of mostly Dark Energy...can We use it to run Our cars?"

"If You want peace, take the profit out of war."

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #11 on: February 02, 2014, 06:05:04 PM »
It suggested that South Western Winds could often carry a lot of the fall out radiation...

Yes they waited for the winds to blow towards Utah before firing...  Mormons were not considered nice people at one time for their polygamy policy and were persecuted...

Quote
It discussed how one city in Utah  "St Georges", was badly effected  where many people died of Cancer caused from the Radiation.

A town in Ontario Canada has the highest birth defects. Bancroft  Ontario is what mineral collectors call God's dumping ground... the story goes that when God finished the Universe everything left over was dumped in Bancroft :D  The area is literally scattered with all kinds of rare radioactive minerals and the main industry was mining for uranium etc.  Back in the 50's there was no protection.   Even when I was collecting specimens, the area was very 'hot' and there are still awesome collecting sites for radioactives.  One mine had a spring  nice cold clear water. Saw a collector fill his canteen... I asked him if he was aware that this was a uranium mine :P  That spring has since been sealed  :D

Wanna buy some 'hot' rocks? I have some Betafites for sale :D

Quote
It was also suggested that during the 1950s when they were making & Filming Hollywood Movies that some of the cast & extras also could had been badly effected....One Movie was starring John Wayne "The Conqueror" filmed in Snow Canyon not far from St Georges.. about Gengis Khan that involved a lot of Horses that kicked up a lot of dust during the time they filmed over several weeks/months..

During testing they also lined up soldiers in ditches at several intervals from the blast to see what effect it had at certain distances :D  Hmmmm

Well looky here... seems they released the footage

[youtube]ZWSMoE3A5DI[/youtube]




WOW  a chemtrail in 1950's :D

Offline zorgon

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #12 on: February 02, 2014, 06:21:30 PM »
This shows how bad dust storms can get in Las Vegas !

Lol  that lasted about 20 minutes  never even made it to my place

This one is in Iraq



Australia




Offline zorgon

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #13 on: February 02, 2014, 06:38:35 PM »
I have to wonder if Nukashima is not being perpetuated, not cleaned up, so that the "elite" have a scapegoat for the cancers that are being/will be caused by the dirty EM these meters emit.

The 'elite' breath the same air and drink the same water and use the same soil we do. Radiation does not discriminate between us and them.

Microwave radiation goes THROUGH walls etc. The tint amount emitted from a smart meter is no more than an average cell phone... a LOT less than a standard mircrowave oven and barely a drop compared to any cell tower or TV/Radio antenna

Fukushima has NOT been 'perpetrated' other than by stupid errors in construction because they cut corners to save money and didn't have a proper system. Human stupidity and arrogance at work to be sure, but as the guy from Toronto said who was there when the EQ CRACKED Unit #1 and it's fuel rods were already half exposed in the main core BEFORE the Tsunami hit... there was NOTHING anyone could do.

Cockroaches survive radiation... maybe this is the way the human species will cull itself so only the fittest survive the fallout  Pure Darwinism at work :D


Online astr0144

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Re: Nuclear Effects on the South West USA
« Reply #14 on: February 02, 2014, 06:59:43 PM »

You done a lot of research and added a fair amount of info to your Smart Meters thread Amy.

I know we discussed them before and Alex Jones was the 1st person to make me aware of them...

I am trying to avoid allowing my Electric Company from fitting them as long as possible..


Yes it does seem that way !...They seem everywhere, that the world is flooded with such people...Surely with all the info now on the internet you would think they would be held more accountable !..

Quote
Since all money systems promote the most psychopathic in Human society, why should We be surprised by (or find "unbelievable") psychopathic plans by the "elite" to be carried out knowingly?

 


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