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Author Topic: Discoveries of New Life Forms  (Read 4018 times)

Online zorgon

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Discoveries of New Life Forms
« on: June 03, 2012, 05:02:09 PM »
Discoveries of New Life Forms

While new discoveries of life forms previously unknown or unidentified is not really Cryptozoology...

Cryptozoology

Quote
Cryptozoology (from Greek ???????, kryptos, "hidden" + zoology; literally, "study of hidden animals") refers to the search for animals whose existence has not been proven. This includes looking for living examples of animals that are considered extinct, such as dinosaurs; animals whose existence lacks physical evidence but which appear in myths, legends, or are reported, such as Bigfoot and Chupacabra; and wild animals dramatically outside their normal geographic ranges, such as phantom cats or "ABCs" (an initialism commonly used by cryptozoologists that stands for Alien Big Cats).

The animals cryptozoologists study are often referred to as cryptids, a term coined by John Wall in 1983.

Cryptozoology is not a recognized branch of zoology or a discipline of science. It is an example of pseudoscience because it relies heavily upon anecdotal evidence, stories and alleged sightings

Cryptozoology


... it is still the best area to place these new discoveries until they are confirmed and easier to organize and after all they were technically 'hidden' until the discovery :D

So I will create this library thread to catalog all such discoveries. As usual, you can make a thread on these for discussion


Reconstruction of Ogopogo, a supposed lake monster said to resemble a plesiosaur Author - Timothy O'Donnell & Garth Guessman - Public Domain Full Size
« Last Edit: June 03, 2012, 05:27:52 PM by zorgon »

Online zorgon

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Re: Discoveries of New Life Forms
« Reply #1 on: June 03, 2012, 05:17:42 PM »
The first entry... was provided to us by arc in this thread...

Life- but not as we know it

Now I also spotted something that I find MOST REFRESHING



So they are encouraging people to repost this article with permission to edit as needed. In this world of copyright fears, I find this a most refreshing and welcome practice. I have written the staff to show appreciation

On with the article...



Rare Protozoan from Sludge in Norwegian Lake Does Not Fit On Main Branches of Tree of Life


Glimpse into primordial times: Genetic analyses of a micro-organism that lives in the sludge of a lake in Ås, 30 km south of Oslo i Norway, are providing researchers with an insight into what the first life on Earth looked like. (Credit: UiO/MERG)

ScienceDaily (Apr. 26, 2012) — Humankind's remotest relative is a very rare micro-organism from south-Norway. The discovery may provide an insight into what life looked like on earth almost one thousand million years ago.

Biologists all over the world have been eagerly awaiting the results of the genetic analysis of one of the world's smallest known species, hereafter called the protozoan, from a little lake 30 kilometer south of Oslo in Norway.

When researchers from the University of Oslo, Norway compared its genes with all other known species in the world, they saw that the protozoan did not fit on any of the main branches of the tree of life. The protozoan is not a fungus, alga, parasite, plant or animal.

"We have found an unknown branch of the tree of life that lives in this lake. It is unique! So far we know of no other group of organisms that descend from closer to the roots of the tree of life than this species. It can be used as a telescope into the primordial micro-cosmos," says an enthusiastic associate professor, Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi, head of the Microbial Evolution Research Group (MERG) at the University of Oslo.

His research group studies tiny organisms hoping to find answers to large, biological questions within ecology and evolutionary biology, and works across such different fields as biology, genetics, bioinformatics, molecular biology and statistics.

World's oldest creature

Life on Earth can be divided up into two main groups of species, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The prokaryote species, such as bacteria, are the simplest form of living organisms on Earth. They have no membrane inside their cell and therefore no real cell nucleus. Eukaryote species, such as animals and humankind, plants, fungi and algae, on the other hand do.

The family tree of the protozoan from the lake near Ås starts at the root of the eukaryote species.

"The micro-organism is among the oldest, currently living eukaryote organisms we know of. It evolved around one billion years ago, plus or minus a few hundred million years. It gives us a better understanding of what early life on Earth looked like.," Kamran says to the research magazine Apollon.

How they move

The tree of life can be divided into organisms with one or two flagella. Flagella are important when it comes to a cell's ability to move. Just like all other mammals, human sperm cells have only one flagellum. Therefore, humankind belongs to the same single flagellum group as fungi and amoebae.

On the other hand it is believed that our distant relatives from the family branches of plants, algae and excavates (single-celled parasites) originally had two flagella.

The protozoan from Ås has four flagella. The family it belongs to is somewhere between excavates, the oldest group with two flagella, and some amoebae, which is the oldest group with only one flagellum.

"Were we to reconstruct the oldest, eukaryote cell in the world, we believe it would resemble our species. To calculate how much our species has changed since primordial times, we have to compare its genes with its nearest relatives, amoebae and excavates," says Shalchian-Tabrizi.

Caught with a tasty morsel

The protozoan is not easy to spot. It lives down in the sludge at the bottom of a lake.

It is 30 to 50 micrometres long and can only be seen with a microscope. When Professor Dag Klaveness of MERG wants to catch the protozoan he sticks a pipe down into the lakebed, removes a column of sludge and pours a bile green algae mixture over it.

The algae are such tempting morsels for the small protozoa that they swim up.

"We can then pick them out, one by one, with a pipette," says Klaveness.

There are not many of them. And the University of Oslo biologists have not found them anywhere else other than in this lake.

"We are surprised. Enormous quantities of environmental samples are taken all over the world. We have searched for the species in every existing DNA database, but have only found a partial match with a gene sequence in Tibet. So it is conceivable that only a few other species exist in this family branch of the tree of life, which has survived all the many hundreds of millions of years since the eukaryote species appeared on Earth for the first time."

Not very sociable

The protozoan lives off algae, but the researchers still do not know what eats the protozoan. Nor do they know anything about its life cycle. But one thing is certain:

"They are not sociable creatures. They flourish best alone. Once they have eaten the food, cannibalism is the order of the day," notes Klaveness.

The protozoan has a special cell indentation. It looks like a groove.

"The species has the same intracellular structure as excavates. And it uses the same protuberances as amoebae to catch its food. This means that the species combines two characteristics from each family branch of the main eukaryote groups. This further supports the hypothesis that the species from this lake belongs to a primordial group. Perhaps it descended from the antecedents of both the excavates and amoeba?" asks Shalchian-Tabrizi.

The protozoan was discovered as early as 1865, but it is only now that, thanks to very advanced genetic analyses, researchers understand how important the species is to the history of life on Earth.

Breeding enormous quantities of the protozoan

Dag Klaveness has, together with research fellow Jon Bråte, managed to breed large quantities of the species. No one has done this before. Klaveness has spent the last 40 years specialising in breeding organisms that are difficult to breed or that are difficult to isolate from other species.

Breeding is important if we want to analyse the creature's genes. More than just a few are needed for a genetic test. Researchers have needed to breed large quantities. The work is demanding and has taken many months.

The protozoan's favourite food is green algae, but since both the protozoan and the green algae are eukaryote species, i.e. species with real cell nuclei, it is easy to confuse the genes of the protozoan with those of its food in the gene sequencing. Therefore, Klaveness has chosen to feed the protozoan with blue green bacteria, which are genetically very different to the protozoan. Blue green bacteria are not exactly its favourite dish, but the protozoan can only choose between eating or dying.

Blue green bacteria are prokaryotes, i.e. species without membranes or real cell nuclei. This allows the researchers to differentiate between the genes of the protozoan and its food in the gene sequencing.

Klaveness has a number of vats of the protozoan in the laboratory. The algae mixture sinks to the bottom. The protozoan dives down when it wants to eat.

In optimum conditions they divide every second day. However, with blue green bacteria on the menu, which is just as boring as if you only got carrots for several months and nothing else, the protozoan grows much more slowly.

When the protozoa have reproduced enough, they are centrifuged out and gene sequenced. The genes are then compared with equivalent gene sequences from other species. "We have gene sequenced 300,000 parts of the genome (the total genetic material), but we still do not know how large the genome is. We are currently only looking for the most important parts," explains Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi.

Traces from primordial times

The problem is that DNA sequences change a lot over time. Parts of the DNA may have been wiped away during the passing of the years. Since the protozoan is a very old species, an extra large amount of gene information is required.

"It is often the case with such ancient organisms that features they share in common with other known species have been wiped away from the DNA sequence because of long-term mutations. You can compare it with tarmacing. If you tarmac a road enough times, you will no longer see the cobblestones. Therefore, you have to collect large gene sequences to find common traces from prehistoric times."

Research fellow Sen Zhao was responsible for the extensive, statistical calculations. In order to calculate the family link they have used information from the research group's own Bioportal in cooperation with the high performance computing group at the University of Oslo.

Resolving evolutionary mysteries

Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi explains that the tree of life can provide fundamental answers to great evolutionary mysteries.

"In order to understand what a species is today, we have to understand how they have changed genetically. The tree of life allows us to explain cellular change processes by connecting the genome and morphology (appearance) with its way of life."

Among other things, Shalchian-Tabrizi wants to use the protozoan to investigate when photosynthesis arose among eukaryote organisms. Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplast.

Chloroplasts were originally free-living, blue green bacteria. If the researchers find genetic residues of these bacteria in the protozoan from Ås, this may indicate that photosynthesis arose earlier than supposed.

"There are many likely scenarios, but we still do not know the answer," acknowledges Shalchian-Tabrizi.

The researchers also want to question when other characteristics arose, e.g. mitochondria, which are the energy motors of our cells.

Purifying drinking water in Japan

In recent years researchers have found some apparently matching examples of the protozoan from Ås in Japan and South East Asia. A researcher from Japan arrived in Oslo with a glass of the species solely so that Klaveness could breed them.

"We are now going to gene sequence these organisms, because it is not certain that the genes are the same, even if the morphology is similar," says Klaveness.

The Japanese hope that the protozoan can be used to purify drinking water by removing toxic, blue green bacteria.

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Oslo, via AlphaGalileo. The original article was written by Yngve Vogt.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats:

APA
University of Oslo (2012, April 26). Rare protozoan from sludge in Norwegian lake does not fit on main branches of tree of life. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2012/04/120426104853.htm

MLA
University of Oslo. "Rare protozoan from sludge in Norwegian lake does not fit on main branches of tree of life." ScienceDaily, 26 Apr. 2012. Web. 3 Jun. 2012.

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Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.

Science Daily


Rare Protozoan from Sludge in Norwegian Lake Does Not Fit On Main Branches of Tree of Life

Original Source
Mankind's remotest relative
Apollon Research Magazine



RELATIONSHIP: The primordial animal from Ås, 30 km south of Oslo, does not fit on any of the main branches of the tree of life. Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi had to create a new main branch. It is called Collodictyon. Foto: Yngve Vogt


40 YEARS' EXPERIENCE: Professor Dag Klaveness has spent the last 40 years specialising in breeding micro-organisms. Large quantities are required to analyse the genes. Foto: Yngve Vogt


« Last Edit: June 03, 2012, 05:27:38 PM by zorgon »

Online zorgon

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Re: Discoveries of New Life Forms
« Reply #2 on: June 03, 2012, 05:36:39 PM »
NASA-Funded Research Discovers Life Built With Toxic Chemical
12.02.10


The following Article is reprinted from NASA
NASA-Funded Research Discovers Life Built With Toxic Chemical

There was a LOT of controversy over the discovery of this Arsenic based lifeform. This was the first article...


Image of Mono Lake Research area - Credit NASA

NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth.

Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. The microorganism substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in its cell components.

"The definition of life has just expanded," said Ed Weiler, NASA's associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at the agency's Headquarters in Washington. "As we pursue our efforts to seek signs of life in the solar system, we have to think more broadly, more diversely and consider life as we do not know it."

This finding of an alternative biochemistry makeup will alter biology textbooks and expand the scope of the search for life beyond Earth. The research is published in this week's edition of Science Express.

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur are the six basic building blocks of all known forms of life on Earth. Phosphorus is part of the chemical backbone of DNA and RNA, the structures that carry genetic instructions for life, and is considered an essential element for all living cells.


Felisa Wolfe-Simon processing mud from Mono Lake to inoculate media to grow microbes on arsenic. - Image Credit: Henry Bortman

Phosphorus is a central component of the energy-carrying molecule in all cells (adenosine triphosphate) and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Arsenic, which is chemically similar to phosphorus, is poisonous for most life on Earth. Arsenic disrupts metabolic pathways because chemically it behaves similarly to phosphate.

"We know that some microbes can breathe arsenic, but what we've found is a microbe doing something new -- building parts of itself out of arsenic," said Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a NASA Astrobiology Research Fellow in residence at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., and the research team's lead scientist. "If something here on Earth can do something so unexpected, what else can life do that we haven't seen yet?"


Image of GFAJ-1 grown on arsenic. - Image Credit: Jodi Switzer Blum

The newly discovered microbe, strain GFAJ-1, is a member of a common group of bacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria. In the laboratory, the researchers successfully grew microbes from the lake on a diet that was very lean on phosphorus, but included generous helpings of arsenic. When researchers removed the phosphorus and replaced it with arsenic the microbes continued to grow. Subsequent analyses indicated that the arsenic was being used to produce the building blocks of new GFAJ-1 cells.


Image of GFAJ-1 grown on phosphorus. - Image Credit: Jodi Switzer Blum

The key issue the researchers investigated was when the microbe was grown on arsenic did the arsenic actually became incorporated into the organisms' vital biochemical machinery, such as DNA, proteins and the cell membranes. A variety of sophisticated laboratory techniques was used to determine where the arsenic was incorporated.

The team chose to explore Mono Lake because of its unusual chemistry, especially its high salinity, high alkalinity, and high levels of arsenic. This chemistry is in part a result of Mono Lake's isolation from its sources of fresh water for 50 years.

The results of this study will inform ongoing research in many areas, including the study of Earth's evolution, organic chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, disease mitigation and Earth system research. These findings also will open up new frontiers in microbiology and other areas of research.

"The idea of alternative biochemistries for life is common in science fiction," said Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the agency's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. "Until now a life form using arsenic as a building block was only theoretical, but now we know such life exists in Mono Lake."

The research team included scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University in Tempe, Ariz., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Penn., and the Stanford Synchroton Radiation Lightsource in Menlo Park, Calif.

NASA's Astrobiology Program in Washington contributed funding for the research through its Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology program and the NASA Astrobiology Institute. NASA's Astrobiology Program supports research into the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth.

For more information about the finding and a complete list of researchers, visit:
http://astrobiology.nasa.gov

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Re: Discoveries of New Life Forms
« Reply #3 on: June 03, 2012, 05:41:48 PM »
NASA Unveils Arsenic Life Form
December 2, 2010




Quote
When cooking up the stuff of life, you can’t just substitute margarine for butter. Or so scientists thought.

sciencenewsBut now researchers have coaxed a microbe to build itself with arsenic in the place of phosphorus, an unprecedented substitution of one of the six essential ingredients of life. The bacterium appears to have incorporated a form of arsenic into its cellular machinery, and even its DNA, scientists report online Dec. 2 in Science.

Arsenic is toxic and is thought to be too chemically unstable to do the work of phosphorus, which includes tasks such as holding DNA in a tidy double helix, activating proteins and getting passed around to provide energy in cells. If the new results are validated, they have huge implications for basic biochemistry and the origin and evolution of life, both on Earth and elsewhere in the universe.

Wired Science News

NASA Finds New Life

Quote
NASA has discovered a new life form, a bacteria called GFAJ-1 that is unlike anything currently living in planet Earth. It's capable of using arsenic to build its DNA, RNA, proteins, and cell membranes. This changes everything. Updated.

NASA is saying that this is "life as we do not know it". The reason is that all life on Earth is made of six components: Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. Every being, from the smallest amoeba to the largest whale, share the same life stream. Our DNA blocks are all the same.

That was true until today. In a surprising revelation, NASA scientist Felisa Wolfe-Simon and her team have found a bacteria whose DNA is completely alien to what we know today, working differently than the rest of the organisms in the planet. Instead of using phosphorus, the newly discovered microorganism—called GFAJ-1 and found in Mono Lake, California—uses the poisonous arsenic for its building blocks. Arsenic is an element poisonous to every other living creature in the planet except for a few specialized microscopic creatures.

Gizmodo News

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Re: Discoveries of New Life Forms
« Reply #4 on: June 03, 2012, 05:55:01 PM »
NASA did not find arsenic-based life
by John on December 2, 2010


Quote
Headlines are saying today that NASA found microbes that use arsenic the way all other known life uses phosphorous. The NASA web site says NASA-Funded Research Discovers Life Built With Toxic Chemical. Some other headlines include “NASA finds ‘alien life’ made of arsenic,” “NASA finds arsenic-based life,” and “NASA finds arsenic-loving bacterium.” These headlines are misleading.

The phrase arsenic-based life is misleading because most people would assume this is in contrast to carbon-based life. No, the discovery involves substituting arsenic for phosphorous. So this new microbe is only arsenic-based in the sense that most life is phosphorous-based. Actually, even that is not correct. This is a phosphorous-based life form that has been tricked into using arsenic.

NASA did not find a microbe that substitutes arsenic for phosphorous. They coaxed a microbe into substituting arsenic for phosphorous. Here’s the relevant paragraph from NASA’s story:

    The newly discovered microbe, strain GFAJ-1, is a member of a common group of bacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria. In the laboratory, the researchers successfully grew microbes from the lake on a diet that was very lean on phosphorus, but included generous helpings of arsenic. When researchers removed the phosphorus and replaced it with arsenic the microbes continued to grow. Subsequent analyses indicated that the arsenic was being used to produce the building blocks of new GFAJ-1 cells.

So it seems that NASA found a microbe that could use arsenic, not a microbe that naturally does use arsenic. Perhaps some are inferring that because NASA was able to make this happen in a lab, it may also have happened naturally, though no one has seen that. Maybe so.

NASA goes on to say

    The key issue the researchers investigated was when the microbe was grown on arsenic did the arsenic actually became incorporated into the organisms’ vital biochemical machinery, such as DNA, proteins and the cell membranes.

This is an amazing discovery, but it’s not quite the discovery that headlines imply.

Update: More detailed criticism of the NASA announcement from Nature News. Experts challenge the claim that the microbes actually incorporate arsenic in organic compounds.

Reprinted from:
The Endeavour
The blog of John D. Cook


Microbe gets toxic response


The cells’ large vacuoles may indicate that they are sequestering arsenic. Credit: Science/AAAS

Quote
Researchers question the science behind last week's revelation of arsenic-based life.

Alla Katsnelson

Days after an announcement that a strain of bacteria can apparently use arsenic in place of phosphorous to build its DNA and other biomolecules — an ability unknown in any other organism — some scientists are questioning the finding and taking issue with how it was communicated to non-specialists.

Many readily agree that the bacterium, described last week in Science and dubbed GFAJ-1 (F. Wolfe-Simon et al. Science doi:10.1126/science.1197258; 2010), performs a remarkable feat by surviving high concentrations of arsenic in California's Mono Lake and in the laboratory. But data in the paper, they argue, suggest that it is just as likely that the microbe isn't using the arsenic, but instead is scavenging every possible phosphate molecule while fighting off arsenic toxicity. The claim at a NASA press briefing that the bacterium represents a new chemistry of life is at best premature, they say.

"It's a great story about adaptation, but it's not ET," says Gerald Joyce, a biochemist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California.

Nature: International Journal of Science

Paper:

Comment on “A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus” - [PDF][Archived]

If anyone would like to follow up on this report correspondence should be addressed.
E-mail: felisawolfesimon@gmail.com


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Re: Discoveries of New Life Forms
« Reply #5 on: June 03, 2012, 06:00:31 PM »

Tufa formations along the shore of Mono Lake


A very good summary of both sides on Wikipedia...

GFAJ-1

Quote
GFAJ-1 is a strain of rod-shaped bacterium in the family Halomonadaceae. The extremophile was isolated from the hypersaline and alkaline Mono Lake in eastern California by a research team led by NASA astrobiologist Felisa Wolfe-Simon. In a 2010 Science journal publication, the authors claimed that the microbe, when starved of phosphorus, is capable of substituting arsenic for a small percentage of its phosphorus and sustain its growth. Immediately after publication, other microbiologists and biochemists expressed doubt about this hypothesis, and the claim that this bacterium uses arsenic instead of phosphorus in its metabolism is robustly debated in the scientific community.

The GFAJ-1 bacterium was discovered by geomicrobiologist Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a NASA astrobiology fellow in residence at the US Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California. GFAJ stands for "Give Felisa a Job". The organism was isolated and cultured beginning in 2009 from samples she and her colleagues collected from sediments at the bottom of Mono Lake, California, U.S.A. Mono Lake is hypersaline (about 90 grams/liter) and highly alkaline (pH 9.8). It also has one of the highest natural concentrations of arsenic in the world (200 ?M). The discovery was widely publicized on 2 December 2010.[2]

GFAJ-1

Seems even real scientists don't trust NASA :P

 


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