The Ancients
The Case for Hobbits
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The Hobbit's house by by Georg K. in gorodskoy okrug gorod Lytkarino, Moscow Oblast, Russia
55° 35' 59.74" N  37° 52' 41.36" E 
Hobbit Homes
Caucasian Dolmens
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The map above shows locations of known Dolmen structures. The original source for the following images came via a Russian Website... which has little text on these, but a fantastic photo gallery in public domain.

Other sources used:
http://menhir.ru , http://divnomorsk.ru , http://megalith.ru (the most complete information on the dolmens) 

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Menhir
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Here are a few photos to show scale...
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Caucasian Dolmens
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Правый дольмен комплекса на реке Жане. Окрестности Геленджика, Кавказ, Россия.
A dolmen in Jane Valley, Caucasia; about 3,000 BC.
Фото Unwrecker, сентябрь 2004.

Concentrations of megaliths, dolmens and stone labyrinths have been found (but little studied) throughout the Caucasus Mountains, including the Abkhazia. Most of them are represented by rectangular structures made of stone slabs or cut in rocks with holes in their facade. These dolmens cover the Western Caucasus on both sides of the mountain ridge, in an area of approximately 12.000 square kilometres of Russia and Abkhazia.

The Caucasian dolmens represent a unique type of prehistoric architecture, built with precisely dressed large stone blocks. The stones were, for example, shaped into 90-degree angles, to be used as corners or were curved to make a circle. The monuments date between the end of the 4th millennium and the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.C.

While generally unknown in the rest of Europe, these Russian megaliths are equal to the great megaliths of Europe in terms of age and quality of architecture, but are still of an unknown origin. In spite of the variety of Caucasian monuments, they show strong similarities with megaliths from different parts of Europe and Asia, like the Iberian Peninsula, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Israel and India. A range of hypotheses has been put forward to explain these similarities and the building of megaliths on the whole, but still it remains unclear.

Approximately 3,000 of these megalithic monuments are known in the Western Caucasus, but more are constantly being found, while more and more are also being destroyed. Today, many are in great disrepair and will be completely lost if they are not protected from vandals and general neglect.

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A dolmen near Gelendzhik.
Дольмен на реке Догуаб рядом с поселком Пшада, на территории фермерского хозяйства "Дольмен".
Окрестности Геленджика, Кавказ, Россия.
Фото Unwrecker, сентябрь 2004.
Architecture of Russian dolmens

The dolmens have a limited variety in their architecture. The floor plans are square, trapezoidal, rectangular and round. All of the dolmens are punctuated with a portal in the centre of the facade. While round portholes are the most common, square ones are also found. In front of the facade is a court that usually splays out, creating an area where rituals possibly took place. The court is usually outlined by large stone walls, sometimes over a meter high, which enclose the court. It is in this area that Bronze and Iron Age pottery has been found - which helped date these tombs -, along with human remains, bronze tools and silver, gold and semi-precious stone ornaments.

The repertoire of decoration for these tombs is not great. Vertical and horizontal zigzags, hanging triangles and concentric circles are the most common motifs. One decorative motif that is quite common is found across the top of the porthole slab. It can best be described as a lintel held up by two columns. Pairs of breasts, done in relief, have also been found on a few tombs. These breasts usually appear above the two columns of the porthole decoration. Perhaps related to these are the stone plugs, which were used to block the porthole, and are found with almost every tomb. They are sometimes phallic-shaped.

Some unusual items associated with dolmens are big round stone balls, double balls and animal sculptures.

One of the most interesting megalithic complexes – group of three dolmens - stands in a row on a hill above Zhane River on the Black Sea coast in the Krasnodar area near Gelendzhik, Russia. In this area there is a great concentration of all types of megalithic sites including settlements and dolmen cemeteries. Large stone mounds surrounded the two monuments.

The central dolmen is rectangular in plan, 4 x 4 meters, while the two flanking dolmens are circular, 4 and 5 meters in diameter. The two round dolmens had been bulldozed - probably in the 1950s - in order to harvest the surrounding trees, but the main structure of the central dolmen had not been damaged.

Another (fourth) dolmen near Zhane River have a secret entrance at the back of the chamber, and a façade, dummy entrance and courtyard on the front of the dolmen. There in addition to these pristine dolmens were some ruined dolmens.

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Dolmen pyramid in Mamed Canyon

Source: Dolmens of North Caucasus

Other Russian megalithic sites

Other important megalithic sites of Russia have been found along Russia’s northern shores with the White Sea and the Barents Sea as well as at Vera Island.

See also

  • Megalithic art
  • List of megalithic sites
References
  1. Markovin, V.I., Western Caucasian Dolmens
  2. Megre, V., 1995. Ringing Cedars Series
  3. Trifonov, V., 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St.Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences
  4. Kudin, M., 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path - Russian Megaliths
Caucasian Menhirs
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Nikolaev - Район Синегорского и Нового
Цилиндрические каменные блоки, со следами ручной обработки. В количестве 5 штук(если походить в округе, думаю еще можно найти). На одном из блоков ровные пазы, глубиной примерно 10 см.
Nikolaev - New Sinegorsk region
Cylindrical blocks of stone, with traces of manual processing. In quantities of 5 pieces (if you walk around, I think more can be found). On one of the blocks straight grooves with a depth of approximately 10 cm
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Caucasian Menhirs
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Grey
Вот, кстати, одно из фото тех цилиндров:
Grey
Here are, incidentally, more of those photos of cylinders:
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Caucasian Dolmen and Menhirs
Neighborhood pos.Novy (rocks, dolmens, etc.) (Summer 2002-2003)
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Literally in the garden of a local resident we can see the first dolmen. To the left of the dolmen along the sheds, is a path leading up the hill to the rocky ridge.

The path to the summit is steep. Before a small unobtrusive typhus it turns to the right. However, it is a small height - ca. 300m, therefore can be achieved without problems. The path leads out to the foot of the cliffs on the right. You can walk along the cliffs along the ground or immediately go upstairs, directly to the repeater, and go on top. 

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Now then - on the north-east of the rock. Find a forest path which runs through the height of 444.5m directly to the dolmen in the forest (point Dolma).

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Returning back a little along the former power lines (LEP point) it is possible to pass to the north. On the road we come across the cylinders of sandstone with traces of manual processing and blocks with complex grooves. Is very likely that these blocks, megalithic structures, are the same age as the dolmens. Nearby there is an outcropping of sandstone. There, presumably, were hewn out the blocks.

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Going further, we reach the most interesting natural formations - stone mushrooms. Going down the hill a bit, you can watch on a flat rock, "The Mirror", which completes the beam going down (the point of mirrors). 

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Google Translation of Grey's Russian Journey webpage, giving full details and map to see these dolmen near the town of Novy

Original Site: http://journey.by.ru/new/new.htm

Prehistoric Megaliths in the Western Caucasus

RUSSIA'S MEGALITHS:
UNEARTHING THE LOST PREHISTORIC TOMBS OF CAUCASIAN WARLORDS IN THE ZHANE VALLEY

This long-term project is sponsored and administered by the Institute for Study of Material Culture History,

Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, since 1997

The Project was supported by  Russian Ministry of Culture (1998-2006); the State Committee for Protection of Cultural Heritage (Krasnodar area, Russia) (1998-2006); Russian Fund for Humanities (1999-2002, 2006); The Fund of the President of Russia (2001); National Geographic, Committee for Research and Exploration (2001, 2003). 

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Searching for artefacts
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Searching for artefacts
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Taking measurements
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Copying pictograms on the interior walls

SOURCE: Retrieved from the Internet Archives

Archeologists find ancient writings on Sochi’s dolmens
Russia, Sochi News March 24th, 2007

The monuments date between the end of the 4th millennium and the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.C. — that’s older that Pyramids of Egypt!

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Map of Dolmens in Western Caucasus. (c) archeo.ru

Members of Sochi geographical Society had discovered ancient writings on Dolmens located in Sochi area. During their expedition scientists saw images on some of the stones and noticed that they closely resemble Asian petroglyphs. They also believe that these petroglyphs are not just pictures, but have a meaning.Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, since 1997

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Writings on solmen in Sochi. (c) Max Media Group.

Historians from Moscow will help their colleagues from Sochi to prove or disprove this theory. After that Russian “Culture” TV channel will record a film about dolmens in Sochi.

Additional resources on Dolmens in Caucasus:

Photos of Dolmens in Sochi:
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(c) megalith.ru
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(c) Max Media Group
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Source: Sochi News March 24th, 2007

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