Surveyor 1
First Photos on the Moon

On June 14, 1966, the lunar night enveloped the spacecraft plunging it into frigid cold lasting 14 days, 16 hours and 51 minutes. The spacecraft was re-activated in early July and transmitted an additional 1,000 television pictures before onset of the second lunar night. Communications with  were reestablished periodically through January 1967, but no further pictures were obtained after July. During its operation on the moon Surveyor 1 responded to a total of 158,084 commands from Earth and transmitted 11,150 high quality photos of the lunar surface.

SOURCE: Boeing Integrated Defense Systems

Unlike the Ranger missions, which had hard impact landings on the Moon, Surveyor 1 is the first U.S spacecraft to make a soft landing. Settling down at a site called Flamsteed in Oceanus Procellarum, Surveyor 1 sends back 11,240 pictures of the lunar surface, revealing details as small as 2 millimeters (1/12th inch). The lander operates until January 7, 1967.

See also: 
National Space Science Data Center

Surveyor 1

Surveyor 1 was the first lunar lander in the American Surveyor program that explored the Moon. The program was managed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, utilizing spacecraft designed and built by Hughes Aircraft.

    * Launched May 30, 1966; landed June 2, 1966
    * Weight on landing: 596 lb (270 kg)

A total 11,237 images were transmitted to Earth.

The successful soft landing in the Ocean of Storms was the first ever by the U.S. on an extraterrestrial body, and came just four months after the landing of the Soviet Luna 9 mission.

Wikipedia - Surveyor 1

The Moon - Lunar Orbiter 3
Surveyor 1 spacecraft landing site on the moon

Lunar Orbiter 3 high resolution image of the Surveyor 1 spacecraft and landing site. This image shows the area within the Flamsteed ring in Oceanus Procellarum on the moon. The spacecraft is the bright spot at the center of the red circle. The shadow of the 1 meter wide solar panels can also be seen. The width of the framelets (the spacing between the horizontal lines on the image) is about 220 meters. (Lunar Orbiter 3, frame 194-H3) 


Surveyor Observations of Lunar Horizon-Glow

J. J. Rennilson1 and D. R. Criswell2
(1)  Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., USA
(2)  The Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Tex., USA

Received: 13 August 1973 
Abstract  Each of the Surveyor 7, 6, and 5 spacecraft observed a line of light along its western lunar horizon following local sunset. It has been suggested that this horizon-glow (HG) is sunlight, which is forward-scattered by dust grains (~ 10µ in diam, ~ 50 grains cm–2) present in a tenuous cloud formed temporarily (lap 3 h duration) just above sharp sunlight/shadow boundaries in the terminator zone. Electrically charged grains could be levitated into the cloud by intense electrostatic fields (> 500 V cm–1) extending across the sunlight/shadow boundaries. Detailed analysis of the HG absolute luminance, temporal decay, and morphology confirm the cloud model. The levitation mechanism must eject 107 more particles per unit time into the cloud than could micro meteorites. Electrostatic transport is probably the dominant local transport mechanism of lunar surface fines.
This work was supported in part by the California Institute of Technology under Grant NGR 05-002-158, and in part by the Lunar Science Institute, which is operated by the Universities Space Research Association under Contract No. NSR-09-051-001 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This paper is Lunar Science Institute Contribution No. 163.

Surveyor Observations of Lunar Horizon-Glow

Surveyor 1 Photo Collection
SURVEYOR I - June 16, 1966
View of Moon's surface from Surveyor I 
Surveyor 1 Solar Corona Spike "Solar corona in the photograph observed by Surveyor 1, 16 minutes after sunset on the Moon June 14,1966," was remarked Gordon Newkirk, of the High Altitude Observatory. "A bright coronal streamer is visible as a thin pencil of light extending out of the brighter inner corona, against which the lunar horizon is silhouetted."
Image from Surveyor 1 of its footpad in order to study soil mechanics in preparation for the Apollo manned landings.
 Panoramas of the Surveyor 1 landing site.
This is a good sample showing the clear detail available, if we could get the originals
Lunar Surveyor 1 Panorama
Credit: NASA / Philip Stooke, University of Western Ontario - Click to enlarge

Flamsteed region in Oceanus Procellarum, June 1966

Surveyor 1 was the first spacecraft from the United States to perform a controlled landing on the surface of the Moon, at 2.45 S, 316.79 E. Surveyor 1 took more than 11,100 images of the lunar landscape during its 6-week mission. This panorama was scanned from a photographic print of a hand-assembled mosaic, then digitally reconstructed and cleaned of visual defects by Philip Stooke. 

Surveyor 1

Successful lunar lander (USA)
Launched: May 30, 1966
Surveyor 1 was the first spacecraft from the United States to perform a controlled landing on the surface of the Moon. Once on the surface, Surveyor 1 took over 11,100 images of the lunar landscape during its six-week mission.

The Planetary Society: Missions to the Moon

Atlas-Centaur launches Surveyor 1 (May 30, 1966) - NASA
GPN-2000-000617 - The Atlas-Centaur 10, carrying the Surveyor 1 spacecraft, lifting off from Pad 36A.
The Surveyor 1 mission scouted the lunar surface for future Apollo manned lunar landing sites. - NASA GRIN
~ MENU ~


Webpages  © 2001-2008
Blue Knight Productions